Northern Wing of the Movement

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As explained in About the Civil Rights Movement Archive, this website was created to document and preserve the history of the Southern Freedom Movement — meaning the Civil Rights Movement as it occurred in the South. We initially chose not to cover the northern wing of the Movement because few of us in Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement had much direct experience in the North and because, with one exception, we did not have any significant collection of northern materials to begin with. However, some collections of southern material also contain northern documents which in 2020 we decided to begin including here. For more on the northern wing, see Northern Wing of the Civil Rights Movement).

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner

Notes on language:

  1. As was the common usage by Freedom Movement activists in the 1960s, this page uses the word "Northern" to denote the movement as it existed outside of the South.

  2. In the 1960s, social-justice activists commonly used the word "ghetto" for Afro-American neighborhoods — particularly in the urban north — as a way of calling attention to involuntary residential segregation, economic exploitation, systemic poverty, and police repression. In some contexts, "ghetto" was also a term of defiant community pride. Today, some folks now use "ghetto" as a disparaging pejorative, as in "that's so ghetto." On this site we use "ghetto" as it was used in the 1960s.


Northern Documents Listed Chronologically

See also Northern Documents Grouped by Issue

Pre-63   1963   1964   1965   1966 & later  

Background for Los Angeles Movement Documents

Before 1963
12/17/61 Report re Proposals of the East Harlem Triangle Community Assoc regarding urban renewal plans, Alice Kornegay
????LAUSDDilworth Act Relating to Communist-Party Membership, school board's legal basis for "Loyalty Oath."
5/52NAACPPatterns of Employment Discrimination, 12-page Crisis reprint-pamphlet by Herbert Hill based on his congressional testimony
3/62?  LAUSD Board rule requiring Loyalty Oath, J.P. Crowther, L.A. Unified School District. Possibly March 1962

1963CORE  Welcome to CORE, flyer for new members. Undated 1963
1963?NSMNorthern Student Movement Coordinating Conmittee Budget, unsigned. Undated (possibly 1963)
1963CORESouthwest Realty Board Supports Segregation, CORE flyer ("southwest" refers to an area of L.A. county). Undated 1963
1963?NYCWhat You Should Know to Get Rid of Rats, New York City Dept. of Health. Undated.
1963CORESegregated Schools in Los Angeles, 32-page pamphlet. Kenneth Fry, CORE Education Committee. Undated
5/9/63COREChief Parker resign! Mother's Day party flyer
63? 64?Rally to Support the Southern Freedom Movement, Unsigned (possibly CORE), Undated (probably June of either '63 or '64)
6/28/63COREPress release about real estate tycoon Don Wilson, LA CORE.
7/21/63Join Our Demonstration Against Police Malpractice, Ad Hoc Committee Against Police Malpractice, Venice CA.
Fall 63UCRCAct Now! Flyer against school segregation. Unsigned UCRC. Undated
Fall 63UCRCFlyer against school segregation. Unsigned UCRC. Undated
7/63CORELA CORE organizing calendar.
7/10/63COREPress release protesting Torrance town curfew to block protests, LA CORE.
8/63CORELA CORE organizing calendar
8/63HEPNeighborhood Commons Project, unsigned Harlem Education Project.
9/63CORESo You Are Willing to Be Arrested, LA CORE arrestee form. Undated (probably September '63)
9/19/63COREYes, There IS School Segregation Here flyer. LA CORE.
Fall 63COREDuties of Monitors, protest instructions. Unsigned LA CORE. Undated.
Fall 63CORENote to Bruin CORE re White-Only job notice at sorority, anonymous. Undated
Fall 63COREBruin CORE recruitment flyer. Undated
Fall 63?COREAnti-Bruin CORE flyer attacking Bruin CORE. Undated.
Fall 63COREBoard of Education Sing-In songsheet, unsigned LACORE.
10/63CORESupport for CORE Action Projects, Woodrow Coleman L.A. CORE Action Committee.
10/14/63COREAction Committee Memo & Agenda, Woodrow Coleman L.A. CORE.
10/17/63COREFlyer for 3rd study-in against L.A. school segregation. Unsigned L.A. CORE
10/24/63COREFlyer for 4th study-in against L.A. school segregation, unsigned CORE.
11/2/63COREReport on All Night Sit-in at Board of Education, Bruce Hartford, N-VAC/Bruin CORE.
11/11/63COREDaily Bruin article on BoE sit-in
11/14/63CORERevised L.A. CORE Constitution, adopted November 14, 1963
11/18/63COREPress release supporting Hopi tribe, Unsigned L.A. CORE.
11/30/63COREL.A. CORE Active Membership Bulletin
12/63COREDon't Support Job Discrimination, unsigned CORE (later N-VAC) against Wichstand drive-in.
12/63CORELetter demoting 17 members of L.A. CORE (the result of a "more-protests" vs "fewer-protests" internal split)
12/16/63COREL.A. CORE Active Membership Bulletin
63? 64?BAGCase Study in Direct Action: The Boston Action Group vs Wonder Bread. Unsigned. Undated (probably late 1963 or sometime in 1964)

1964COREDraft program to clear up slums, retrain unemployed and raise standards of minority groups in New York, Unsigned N.Y. CORE.
1964Petition to President Johnson and Dept of Justice, Undated (probably later 1964)
1964CORE  Active member questionaire, L.A. CORE. Undated (possibly late 1963 or early 1964)
1964COREFor Whom the (School) Bell Tolls, school segregation flyer. Pasadena CORE. Undated (possibly 1964)
1964?N-VACHome Savings Finances Discrimination, unsigned N-VAC flyer. Undated.
1964COREFundraising Brochure, L.A. CORE,
1964?CADoJIncident information form, California Department of Justice. Undated.
1964N-VACArrest consent & instructions form, Unsigned, N-VAC. Undated 1964
1964N-VACNon-Violent Action Committee stationary
1964N-VACN-VAC Membership Application, Non-Violent Action Committee. Undated
1964?N-VAC Letter from Lincoln Heights Jail, Woodrow Coleman (handwritten). (Undated, probably 1964)
1964N-VAC Nonviolent training session notes #1, (handwritten), undated 1964
1964N-VAC Nonviolent training session notes #2, Undated
1964N-VAC Nonviolent training session notes #3, Undated
1964N-VAC Nonviolent training session notes #4 (annotated during session). Undated
1964N-VAC Nonviolent training session script (handwritten). Undated
1964COREFundraising questionaire for L.A. CORE members, undated 1964
1964N-VAC Note (handwritten) from Lincoln Heights jail, Woodrow (Woody) Coleman. Undated 1964
1/30/64CORESafeway negotiations with CORE, E.A. Saunders, Safeway, press-release by L.A. CORE.
2/1/64CORESafeway Gives in to CORE's Demands, membership bulletin. L.A. CORE.
2/64N-VACRevised Employment Statistics of Van de Kamp's, Bruce Hartford, N-VAC. Undated (probably early February 1964)
2/64N-VACN-VAC employment demands presented to Van de Kamp's, unsigned. Undated (probably mid-February 1964)
2/64COREL.A. CORE Organizing Calendar
2/1/64COREL.A. CORE Membership Bulletin
2/19/64N-VACBoycott of Van de Kamp's Called for Thursday, unsigned N-VAC press release (probably by Mari Goldman). February 19, 1964
2/19/64COREL.A. CORE Membership Bulletin
2/21/64UCRCMemo to members re protests against discrimination by Ralph's sumermarkets, Earl Walter, UCRC.
2/21/64N-VACDon't Buy Van De Kamp's, first boycott flyer, unsigned. Undated (probably February 21st 1964)
2/21/64COREAnti-Segregation Amendment Action Timetable, Bruin CORE flyer. February 21, 1964
2/21/64COREAnti-Segregation Action! Unsigned Bruin CORE flyer
Spg 64COREBruin CORE flyer picket line violence & Republican convention. Undated (probably spring 1964)
3/64COREL.A. CORE Organizing Calendar
3/64COREL.A. CORE-Lator, newsletter. Vol 1, Num 1
3/64N-VACFact Sheet on Van De Kamp's Action, unsigned. Undated (probably March '64)
3/6/64COREL.A. CORE Membership Bulletin
3/11/64COREDear Friend of Freedom, L.A. CORE recruitment letter, Arthur Silver, Chair, L.A. CORE. March 11, 1964
3/14/64N-VAC Come Join Us, Van de Kamp's sit-in flyer. Unsigned.
3/17/64UCRCDear Friend mailing re agreement with Ralph's Stores, Earl Walter, UCRC.
3/21/64N-VAC Van de Kamp's Discriminates Against Negroes This Must be Changed Now, sit-in flyer. Unsigned.
3/24/64COREL.A. CORE Membership Bulletin
3/26/64COREInitiative No!, flyer opposing state constitutional initiative to prohibit civil rights laws such as the Rumford Fair Housing Act. Unsigned L.A. CORE.
3/28/64COREReserve: March 28, flyer promoting civil rights march. Unsigned Bruin CORE
4/64COREL.A. CORE Organizing Calendar
4/4/64COREWhy We Are Demonstrating! unsigned L.A. CORE flyer re employment discrimination by radio station KFWB.
4/4/64COREFreedom Now? Recruitment flyer for protests against job discrimination. Unsigned L.A. CORE
4/64N-VAC N-VAC picket line song sheets, undated (probably April, May, or June of 1964)
4/5/64N-VAC Van De Kamps Discriminates Against Negroes This Must Stop Now, protest flyer. Bruce Hartford, N-VAC
4/10/64N-VAC N-VAC Invites You to Hear Gloria Richardson, leader of the Cambridge Non-Violent Action Committee. Flyer.
4/10/64N-VAC N-VAC Presents Gloria Richardson, Flyer.
4/64COREStop Double Sessions in Our Schools! L.A. CORE flyer. Undated (probably mid April 1964)
4/16/64CORELetter re the suspension of Brooklyn CORE (because of the Worlds Fair "stall-in"), James Farmer, CORE National Director,
4/26/64N-VAC N-VAC Freedom Rally flyer
4/27/64UCRCDear Friend mailing re negotiations and action against Thriftymart, Earl Walter, UCRC.
4/29/64UCRCBoycott Thriftymart Stores flyer, unsigned UCRC.
5/5/64COREChief Parker Resign! flyer opposing police brutality & malpractice. Unsigned CORE.
1964COREStudy History by Living It! Volunteer for Los Angeles CORE's Freedom Summer, undated flyer (probably April or May of 1964)
5/8/65ISAFlyer protesting visit by Shah of Iran to UCLA, Iranian Students Association
1964COREMore Action, Not Less Will Win!, Bruin CORE Bank of American flyer. Undated (probably May or June of '64)
5/16/65N-VAC Are You Free? Have You Ever Done Anything for Your Freedom?, Boycott Van de Kamps flyer, Bruce Hartford, N-VAC.
5/19/65COREL.A. CORE Membership Bulletin
5/22/65COREBruin CORE Action Bulletin No. 1, protest flyer against Bank of America
5/22/65COREI.O.U. Equal Job Opportunities, boycott Bank of America flyer, L.A. CORE
5/27/65N-VAC Stop! Don't Buy at Van DeKamp's, boycott Van de Kamps flyer.
5/27/65COREBank of American campaign report, Chet Duncan, CORE Western Region.
5/28/65N-VAC 4 N-VAC members found guilty; charges against 6 juveniles dismissed. Van de Kamps sit-in arrest & trial.
5/29/64BofAAdvertisement opposing CORE employment-discrimination protests, Bank of America (published in UCLA Senior Bruin newspaper
5/29/64COREFlyer protesting racially-motivated flyer by Vickers Inc. Unsigned L.A.CORE.
5/30/64N-VAC We're Having a Going Away Party, fundraising flyer for jail-bound protesters. Unsigned, N-VAC
6/2/64COREL.A. CORE Membership Bulletin
6/3/64N-VAC Statement on L.A. situation criticizing "moderate" leaders and calling for militant protests
6/4/64COREStatement to City Council on Police Malpractice, L.A. metropolitan CORE chapters
6/7/64COREJoin Our Demonstration Now! Flyer for protest at L.A. Realty Board against housing segregation and discrimination
6/11/64 Why the Shah of Iran Should Not be Invited to UCLA. Flyer signed by Iranian Students Assoc, Organization of Arab Students, National Student Association, supported by Bruin CORE
6/11/64N-VAC N-VAC Demonstrators Go To Jail, press release about jail sentences for protesting employment discrimination at Van de Kamps
6/13/64N-VAC This Man Has Been Found Guilty of Protesting Racial Discrimination, Van de Kamp's flyer. Unsigned.
6/19/64COREJobs for Negroes and Non-Whites at Bank of America Thanks to CORE, flyer. Unsigned, Bruin CORE.
6/23/64COREPassage of Rumsfeld fair housing legislation in the California Assembly, press release. Unsigned, L.A. CORE.
6/24/64N-VAC Jailed N-VAC Demonstrators Demand 5 More Days in Jail, unsigned press release.
6/26/64COREProtest at Bank of America, press release. Unsigned, Bruin CORE.
7/64COREWhy We Say Bank of America Discriminates
7/64YAUYouth Action Union Newsletter
1964Help? — Help?, flyer opposed to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Unsigned racist, anti-civil-rights group (probably from Wisconsin). Undated (probably later 1964)
7/7/64N-VAC Letter to parents of protesters arrested during a sit-in, Hugh Manes, ACLU attorney
7/10-15N-VAC Van de Kamps injuction against the sip-in tactic
Injunction, declaration of service #1
Injunction, declaration of service #2
Declaration of Robert Hudecek
Declaration #2 of Robert Hudecek
Declaration of Russel I. Kelly
Declaration #2 of Russel I. Kelly
Declaration of Everett W. Brown
Order to Show Cause in re Contempt
7/13/64UCRCDear Friend mailing re shop-ins and protests against Thriftymart Stores, Brookins & Walter, UCRC.
7/24/64N-VAC Eight Convicted at Civil Rights Trial, L.A. Times newsclip
1964N-VACHandwritten courtroom sentencing notes, Bruce Hartford N-VAC. Undated (probably late summer or early fall of 1964)
1964N-VACDon't Eat Here, Van de Kamp's boycott flyer. Bruce Hartford, N-VAC. Undated (probably April-July, 1964)
1964N-VACN-VAC Protests Van de Kamp's Racist Hiring Practices, Bruce Hartford, N-VAC. Undated (probably April-July, 1964)
1964N-VACDon't Buy at Van de Kamp's, Bruce Hartford, N-VAC. Undated (probably April-July, 1964)
8/3/64COREMemo to members re PR parnership with L.A. Free Press, Sylvia Richards, L.A. CORE
8/28/64?FoSWisconsin Friends of SNCC Report, Gretchen. Undated (presumed August 28, 1964 or possibly 1965)
8/3/64COREStem the Tide of Hate, joint statement against formation of White Citizens Council in L.A.
8/10/64N-VACN-VAC to demonstrate against Van de Kamps during trial, unsigned press release
9/64DuBoisWest L.A. DuBois Club flyer, unsigned
9/64CORETo the Public: An Extreme Measure?, flyer about fast against school segregation. Unsigned L.A. CORE
9/64COREWhy We Are Demonstrating, flyer opposing school segregation. Unsigned L.A. CORE
9/1/64CORELetter to Freedom House organizing committee re withdrawal of support for West Oakland project. Gretchen Kittridge, Campus CORE (UC Berkeley)
9/1/64LATCommunists and the U.S. Negro, editorial linking civil rights activities to communism, Los Angeles Times.
9/4/64COREBail-raising party flyer (Bank of America victory), unsigned Bruin CORE
9/19/64 Rumford Act case data for first year, unsigned.
9/26/64FoSAppeal to Univ. of Wisconson faculty re federal protection for civil rights workers in Mississippi, Alicia Kaplow, FoS
Fall 64? Ad HocThe Ad Hoc Committee to End Discrimination Needs Your Help, fund appeal flyer. Undated (possibly fall 1964)
1964DuBoisThe W.E.B. DuBois Clubs of America, Berkeley Branch, recruitment brochure. Undated (probably early fall, 1964)
1964DuBoisA Letter From the Los Angeles Organizing Committee, recruitment flyer. W.E.B. DuBois Club. Undated (probably late summer or early fall, 1964)
10/64CORESouthern California CORE-Lator newsletter. Vol 1, Num 2
10/64N-VACLetter to Ad-Hoc Committee to End Discrimination (S.F. Bay Area) regarding police, arrests & trials. Bruce Hartford, undated (probably October 1964)
10/64N-VACExcerpt from Focus on Cambridge by Gloria Richardson. Unsigned N-VAC background info re Prop-14 boycott call. Undated, probably October 1964
10/64N-VACShall We Vote on Democracy???, unsigned N-VAC. Undated, probably October 1964
10/07/64FoSLetter to Pete Seeger asking him to perform at Friends of SNCC concert in Madison Wisconsin, Alicia Kaplow, FoS
  Reply by Peter Seeger's agent declining concert invitation, Harold Leventhal, Agent. 10/22/64
10/10/64N-VAC Injunction agasint the Sip-In tactic by Judge Harold Collins.
10/10/64COREAnother Mass Study-In at L.A. Board of Education flyer.
10/23/64N-VAC Flyer advertising bail-bond fundraising party for jailed protesters. Unsigned N-VAC
10/23/64N-VAC Freedom Now! Party, bulletin board sign for bail-bond fundraising party for jailed protesters. Unsigned N-VAC
10/24/64COREBruin CORE Party, flyer for fundraising party. Unsigned N-VAC
10/24/64COREAll Night Vigil at the Board of Education, protest flyer
10/24N-VAC Chronology of protest actions against Van de Kamps employement discrimination Feb 2 - Oct 24, 1964. Prepared for N-VAC press laison Mari Goldman by Bruce Hartford
10/24/64COREFourth Weekly Mass Study-In, flyer for protest at L.A. Board of Education
10/26/64FoSLetter to Alicia Kaplow denying request for a Solicitation Approval Card, Richard Johnston, Madison Chamber of Commerce Inc.
11/64N-VACNotes on the History of the Non-Violent Action Committee, Bruce Hartford (N-VAC)
11/3/64COREL.A. CORE Active Membership Bulletin
11/9/64N-VAC Statement to L.A. City Council re proposed Human Relations Bureau
11/16/64UCB COREMemo to other CORE chapters, Bryson Collins, U.C. Berkeley CORE
11/16/64UCB CORECampus CORE Activities: Nov '63 - Nov '64, U.C. Berkeley CORE. Undated (probably Nov 16, 1964)
12/1/64COREL.A. CORE Organizing Calendar
12/1/64N-VAC 'Sip-In' Demonstrators Get Suspended Terms, L.A. Times newsclip

'64? '65?Request for Contribution to Support Civil Rights Work, Warner Slack, FASE (Univ. of Wisconsin), Undated (Probably 1964 or 1965)
1965N-VAC   Boycott, Baby, Boycott: N-VAC 16 Point Program, Unsigned. Undated 1965
1965N-VACPolitical Program, unsigned N-VAC. Undated 1965
1965SDSERAP Fall Program Report to the National Council, Rennie Davis, SDS. 1965
3/65 An Appeal to President Lyndon Baines Johnson and ..., re housing segregation and freedom of residence. Donald Frey, National Citizens Assembly on Progress in Equality of Opportunity in Housing. March 1965
1965?SDSSDS Needs Staff application form. Unsigned, SDS. Undated (possibly 1965)
3/17/65FoSWhy We Go To Capitol Hill To Speak With Our Representatives, Unsigned, MFDP/FoS. March 17, 1965
3/19/65SDSMarch 19 Student Action Against American Support of South African Apartheid, Peace Research and Education Project of SDS. March 19, 1965
3/29/65FoSCall for national student-organizing workshops in conjunction with April Vietnam protest, Unsigned, FoS. March 29 1965
3/29/65FoSMemo re shortcomings in proposed Voting Rights bill, Margaret Lauren, Friends of SNCC. March 29, 1965
4/8/65SNCCNational gathering of students in Washington DC., Nancy Cooper, SNCC. April 8, 1965
1965Civil Rights Projects Considered for Support. Unsigned, Univ. Wisconsin Student-Faculty Council. May 6, 1965
6/14/65SDSInstitute on Organizing for Social Action, SDS-ERAP, June 7-1
5/65SNCCReports by the Staff of the Chicago SNCC Freedom Center, Monroe Sharp
11/65?SNCCAnnotated notes on Urban Organizing report by Ivanhoe Donaldson and discussion thereof, "Liz Sutherland (Betita Martinez), SNCC
'65 or '66NSAWisconsin resolution defending W.E.B DuBois Clubs, Unsigned Wisconsin NSA. Undated (1965 or 1966)

1966 & later
1966?NSAThe P.P.C. & The Cooperatives, Unsigned, NSA. Undated
1966?NSAReport re Poor's People's Corperation Personnel Program, Unsigned, NSA. Undated (probably 1966 or 1967)
1/12/66SWAPAnnouncement from Friends of Student Woodlawn Area Project, Chicago, IL. Ann Cook,
1/26/66TTPLetter to Ken Montgomery re Turn Towards Peace strategy and future, Lowell Sachnoff, TTP. Chicago IL
2/1/66CCDBRMemorandum: HUAC Appropriations & Contempt Citations, Richard Criley, CCDBR
2/5/66 What Can Be Done in Illinois to Advance the Causes of Peace, Civil Rights, and Equality of Opportunity, conference flyer. Unsigned
2/9/66CCDBRLetter to Lucy Montgomery, re Chicago Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights, Richard Criley, CCDBR
2/25/66SANEDear Friends letter about Fulbright hearings and opposition to the Vietnam War, Robert Cleland, Chicago SANE
2/25/66FoSEmergency fund appeal letter for SNCC to Lucy Montgomery, Monroe Sharp
3/24/66 Minutes, Berkeley CA Committee for Independent Political Action, unsigned.
4/66VFPReport on Results of Voters for Peace Poll, Karen Sue Dayno, VFP Chicago, IL. April 1966
4/15/66 Proposed Vietnam War debate rules & procedures, L.T. Wylie Citizens Committee, April 15, 1966
5/66DuBoisResponse to Attorney General's effort to invoke McCarran Act against W.E.B. DuBois Clubs, Hugh Fowler, Chairman
5/11/66ULChicago Urban League fund appeal, Edwin Berry, ExDir.
8/22/66SIMSIM Chicago Newsletter, E.J. Heagin, Bruce Christie. 1966

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