Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

September 1st, 2023

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According to Google, there were 12,199 visits to our website during August for an average of 394 per day. This number reflects our traditional summer-doldrums when most U.S. schools are out of session. Roughly 30% of our visitors came from outside the U.S.

As of September 1st, our online archive contains more than 9800 searchable pages, documents, and images plus 216 videos in our Vimeo video channel.


Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP) . SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty. The SLP Digital Movement Platform connects modernday users to the mid-twentieth century Southern Civil Rights Movement.

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


Now available: Standing, by Ernest McMillan. Deep Vellum, 2023. Memoir of a SNCC organizer's coming-of-age through the Freedom Movement — Atlanta GA sit-ins, voter-registration in rural Georgia, Selma Alabama, 1964 Democratic Convention Challenge, Texas SNCC, Black Power, welfare rights, prison, and more.

Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1950-1970. See Submissions details.


Top-Five Most Viewed

According to Google, our top-five, most-visited sections and pages in August were:

Section Contents, Landing & Reference Pages

  1. Are You "Qualified" to Vote? — Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
  2. Documents From the Montgomery Bus Boycott
  3. Freedom Rides and Freedom Riders Resources
  4. Civil Rights Movement History 1951-1968
  5. Freedom Movement Bibliography

Individual Pages & Documents

  1. Civil Rights Movement History: 1960 (student sit-ins)
  2. Louisiana Voter Application and Literacy Tests
  3. Alabama Voter Literacy Test
  4. Mississippi Freedom Summer
  5. Civil Rights Movement History: 1955 (Emmett Till, Montgomery Bus Boycott)

(Google does not count how often PDF files are accessed. Since most of our documents are in PDF format, the "Top Five" lists are not all that accurate.)

CRMA Video Channel

Our CRMA Video Channel on the Vimeo hosting service provides videos created by Freedom Movement veterans (or their immediate families) and videos created by others that are substantially about Movement veterans. When you visit the channel, please consider adding yourself as a "follower" for social-media metrics. Thanks.

New videos posted in August:

Anne Braden: Southern Patriot, by Anne Lewis & Mimi Pickering, Appalshop, Inc. 2012. First person documentary about a long-time, dedicated, rights leader. 58min.

Jessie Harris Interview, 2006. SNCC, voting rights, Parchman Prison, MFDP, MS Delta, Greenwood, Laurel. 43min.

Jan Hillegas Interview, 2002. CORE Syracuse NY, COFO West Point, Columbus, Jackson, MS, Freedom Information Service Mississippi. 10min.

Lonnie King, by Carole Merritt. Atlanta Student Movement, U.S. Navy, racial discrimination, Appeal for Humans Rights statement. 2005. 102min.

SNCC 50th #24 ~ Highlander, SSOC and Organizing in the White Community We Knew That We Were Not Free, Bob Zellner, Sue Thrasher, Sharlene Kranz, Margaret Lauren Herring, Candie Carawan, Ed Hamlett. 95min.

SNCC 50th #25 ~ SNCC and the Black Arts Movement: We Had to Change the Conversation, A.B. Spellman, Amiri Baraka, Haki Madhubuti, Jamila Jones, John O'Neal. 90min.

SNCC 50th #26 ~ Plenary, Joyce Ladner traces her roots in the tiny Black community of Palmers Crossing to civil rights activism. 62min.

SNCC 50th #27 ~ SNCC Children Speak, Maisha Moses, James Forman, Jr, Tarik Smith, Sabina Zuqiga Varela, Zora Cobb, Hollis Watkins, Jr. 72min.

SNCC 50th #28 ~ Luncheon Keynote: Congressman John Lewis, history in action (plus the chickens story). 54min.

SNCC 50th #29 ~ Luncheon Keynote - US Attorney General Eric Holder, from the sit-ins to Obama, racial inequality in everything from unemployment rates to the length of prison terms. 29min.

New Movement Documents

1963? Tonight! Hear Aaron Henry, Freedom Voter campaign flyer. Unsigned, COFO
1964Memo to Friends of SNCC re McComb MS, unsigned SNCC. 9/24/64
1964Problems Facing COFO, analyses. Unsigned COFO. October 1964.
1968The New SNCC, James Forman, SNCC
1964Contacts posted on wall in Hattiesburg MS, unsigned SNCC. 9/24/64
1964Clark County MS - Stonewall community contact list, unsigned, COFO. Undated Freedom Summer
Southern Regional Council (SRC) documents, publications, & articles.
1950A Progress Report on the Press unsigned, New South, March 1950
1950Bigotry and Fighting Men, Freedom to Serve, and Integration in the Armed Forces. Unsigned New South, August 1950 & November 1954. Racism, segregation-integration and the Korean War
1950Graduate Schools Admit Negroes, unsigned New South, October 1950. (Page missing)
1950Representation for All, unsigned New South, November 1950. Discrimination, elections, and voting rights.

Freedom Movement Publications

Louisiana CORE Newsletter, July 1965, poem, Louisiana problems, Jonesboro, finances, Bogalusa, etc

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

3/11/64 FoSFreedom Fast Sing-In flyer with Barbara Dane, unsigned FoS, U.C. Berkeley
9/29/64PCDC Memo to Madison WI FoS re Indictment of Patricia Coatsworth (Cuba travel), Joan Wallach, PCDC
3/2/66FoSDear Friend, list of organizations active on Univ. of Wisconson campus and community. Nealeen? Roohm
3/12/66NSA/FoSAnti-slum housing resolution defeated at NSA meeting (related to Chicago Freedom Movement), Ned Rube?
Students for a Democratic Society Documents
7/63The Survey and Community Organizing, Nick Egelson, SDS/ERAP. (8 pages)
10/63The Bruns Strike, a Case Study in Student Participation in Labor. Clark Kissinger, SDS. (5 pages)
9/64Goldwaterism: Its Origin and Impact, Jim Willians, SSOC/SDS. (10 pages)
12/64SDS Bulletin: Nov-Dec 1964, Vol 3 #3. Elections, university, unemployed, chapter reports, etc. (42 pages)
4/65The New Radicals & "Participatory Democracy", Staughton Lynd, Dissent. (8 pages)
4/17/65SDS March on Washington to End the War in Vietnam, April 17, 1965 (5 documents)
11/22/65Los Angeles, CA. SDS Bulletin #3, November 22, 1965, organizational matters, walk for peace in Vietnam. (13 pages)
12/65High School Reform, Towards a Student Movement, M. Kleinman, SDS. High School Reform, Towards a Student Movement. (5 pages)
67? 68?Where It's At: A Research Guide For Community Organizing, Paul Booth, Mimi Feingold, Carl Whitman, Jill Hamberg, Nancy Gitlin, Howard Epstein. (95 pages)
6/67Statement to SDS National Convention, Women's Liberation Workshop
10/68Boulder and Boulder, material from SDS national conference, Boulder CO. (11 pages)
7/69To Our Brothers and Sisters in SDS, statement by Radical Student Union (RSU) of Berkeley(?) re Black Panthers and women. Unsigned, undated (possibly July 1969)
7/69Statement re community control of police, conduct of convention, SDS national office. Unsigned RSU. Undated (possibly July 1969)
8/68Political Direction of SDS, Jack Bloom, Marilyn Morehead(?), Jack Gerson (ISC)
SF State BSU/TWLF-Led Student & Faculty Strike (1968-1969)
1968-1969 TWLF Strike Chronology of Key Events
School of Third World Studies, planning documents. Unsigned, undated.
Chinatown and the Chinese, L. Ling-chi Wang, ICSA and ICSA Official Statement. December 26, 1968.
Declaration of Emergency, S.I. Hayakawa. December 2, 1968
Shut it Down! A College in Crisis, San Franicisco State College, October 1968-April, 1969. Staff report National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence. William Orrick Jr. June 1969 (189 pages).
Strike At Frisco State! The Story Behind it, Research Organizing Cooperative. Undated (probably 1969) (40 pages)
Partial transcription of speech to BSU/TWLF students by Benny Stewart, BSU. 11/4/68.
Partial transcription of speech to BSU/TWLF students by Stokely Carmichael, SNCC. 11/4/68.
Dudley Swim - Who Are You? Economic description & political analysis of the trutees and regents. Unsigned. Undated.
San Francisco State, TWLF strike report. Peter Shapiro & Bill Barlow, Radical Education Project. April 1969. 15 pages
January 1969 materials, (37 documents)
February 1969 materials, (18 documents)
March 1969 materials, (5 documents)
Undated strike materials, (14 documents)
High school strike-related materials (6 documents)
Lawyers Newsletter #9, January class attendance statistics. Unsigned, undated.

New Letters & Reports From the Field

2/09/62Faith Holsaert, SNCCBonjour, update letter re the Movement in SW Georgia
9/27/62(Peggy Dammond?) SNCCFaith, Faith...How can I begin?, Letter to Faith Holsaert
10/15/62Bob (Mants?) SNCCDear Faith, fare-thee-well letter re Albany GA
11/9/62Faith Holsaert?Letter from Southwest Georgia
11/15/62John O'Neal, SNCCReport of Week's Activities, Southwest GA
1/24/63Joe SpielerDear Faith, letter to Faith Holsaert re the Movement and Albany GA
11/15/64Unsigned, COFOReport: Clarke County Executive Committee, MS

New Letters & Reports From Mississippi Freedom Summer

July?List of Towns and Citys in Clarke County, MS, unsigned COFO
July?Trainers for voter registration and federal programs & welfare, unsigned COFO
7/29Report: County Meeting of the Clarke County Freedom Democratic Party, unsigned MFDP

New Additions to Our Stories

UnidentifiedInterview, unidentified white Louisiana CORE staff member, by #KZSU Project South (Institute of American History, Stanford University), summer 1965
Frank BatesInterview, of SCLC leader in Crawfordsville Georgia by #KZSU Project South (Institute of American History, Stanford University), summer 1965
Henry BrownInterview, of CORE staff member in Clinton Louisiana by #KZSU Project South (Institute of American History, Stanford University), summer 1965
John BuffingtonInterview, of SNCC staff member in Clay County Mississippi by #KZSU Project South (Institute of American History, Stanford University), summer 1965
Sam CarrInterview, of MFDP leader in Aberdeen Mississippi by #KZSU Project South (Institute of American History, Stanford University), summer 1965
Courtland CoxInterview by Greg Ivers, Julian Bond Oral History Project, 2018
Annie DevineInterview, of MFDP leader in Canton MS by #KZSU Project South (Institute of American History, Stanford University), summer 1965
James GarrettRemembering the Black Campus Movement, an Oral History Interview by Ibram Rogers, 2009
Bill HansenInterview, of SNCC staff member in Arkansas by #KZSU Project South (Institute of American History, Stanford University), summer 1965
Willie JohnsonInterview, of SNCC staff member in Vicksburg Mississippi by #KZSU Project South (Institute of American History, Stanford University), summer 1965
Cleveland SellersOral-History Interview, by William Link re freedom movement. 1989. 21 pages

New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

Courtland Cox: 60th Anniversary Remembrance of the March on Washington

New Additions to Our Thoughts

American HypocrisyBruce Hartford

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

Patricia A Perez - NAACP, 1965-1971 TX. [Dallas, TX]

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Claude Liggins

New Additions to Our Discussions

SNCC 50th #24 ~ Highlander, SSOC and Organizing in the White Community:, We Knew That We Were Not Free ~

SNCC 50th #25 ~ SNCC and the Black Arts Movement:, We Had to Change the Conversation ~ A.B. Spellman, Amiri Baraka, Haki Madhubuti, Jamila Jones, John O'Neal

SNCC 50th #26 ~ Plenary, Joyce Ladner, traces her roots in the tiny Black community of Palmers Crossing to civil rights activism ~

SNCC 50th #27 ~ SNCC Children Speak, Maisha Moses, James Forman, Jr., Tarik Smith, Sabina ZuC1iga Varela, Zora Cobb, Hollis Watkins, Jr. ~

SNCC 50th #28 ~ Luncheon Keynote: Congressman John Lewis (including the famous "chickens" story)

SNCC 50th #29 ~ Luncheon Keynote: US Attorney General Eric Holder, from the sit-ins to President Obama

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry

No new poems added this month.

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

No new photos added this month

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

Recent Books by or About Movement Veterans:

Standing, by Ernest McMillan. August, 2023.

My Country Is the World: Staughton Lynd's Writings, Speeches, and Statements against the Vietnam War, edited by Luke Smith. Foreword by Staughton and Alice Lynd. Haymarket Books, 2023.

The Struggle of Struggles, by Vera Pigee (1924-2007), edited by Frangoise Hamlin, University Press of Mississippi. 2023. New edition of Vera Pigee autobiography chronicles Coahoma County MS, NAACP, Women's leadership, grassroots organizing, citizenship schools, voter registration, and the Baptist church.

A Day I Ain't Never Seen Before Remembering the Civil Rights Movement in Marks, Mississippi, by Joe Bateman, Cheryl Lynn Greenberg, and Richard Arvedon. How the civil rights movement unfolded in a small rural town, far from the cameras.

Stayed On Freedom: The Long History of Black Power through One Family's Journey, by Dan Berger, Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons. An authorized biography of Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons that brings into focus the lives of two unheralded Black Power activists who dedicated their lives to the fight for freedom. Basic Books, January 2023.

By Hands Now Known: Jim Crow's Legal Executioners, by Margaret Burnham, 2023. Investigation of Jim Crow-era racial violence, the legal apparatus that sustained it, and its enduring legacy. If the law cannot protect a person from a lynching, then isn't lynching the law?

Anne Braden Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches, 1947-1999, Ben Wilkins, editor. Monthly Review Press, August 2022. Representative collection of Braden's writings, speeches, and letters, covering the full spectrum of her activism: from the relationship between race and capitalism, to the role of the South in American society, to the political function of anti- communism.

The Movement Made Us: A Father, a Son, and the Legacy of a Freedom Ride, by David Dennis Sr. & Jr. HarperCollins, May 2022. "A dynamic family exchange that pivots between the voices of a father and son, a unique work of oral history and memoir, chronicling the extraordinary story of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and its living legacy embodied in Black Lives Matter."

Recent Films & Videos By or About Movement Veterans:

Lowndes County and the Road to Black Power, by Sam Pollard & Geeta Gandbhir, Multitude Films in association with The Atlantic. Story of the local movement and young Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organizers who fought not just for voting rights, but for Black Power in Lowndes County. 2022. 90min.


As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them in to us.

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 — Bruce Hartford,

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