Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

September 1st, 2021

According to Google, 11,584 people visited the website during August for an average of 374 per day. This low number reflects our traditional summer-doldrums when most U.S. schools are out of session. Now that schools are reopening, our traffic will rise in the coming months. Roughly 23% of our visitors came from outside the U.S.

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner.

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With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

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Our Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


SNCC 60th Anniversary Conference. Organizing Our Strength for Tomorrow: A Call to Gather on SNCC's 60th Anniversary. A virtual online gathering, October 14-16, 2021

Just Released: Run: Book One, by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin. Sequel to the March triology. "First you march, then you run." Graphic-novel format memoir by John Lewis recounting the Freedom Movement after passage of the Voting Rights Act — including the pushback of those who resist social change and refuse to accept racial equality and justice, and the continuing struggles of those who believe change has not gone far enough.

Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. See Submissions details.

New Movement Documents

1958You Were There (Little Rock), NAACP fundraising flyer
1963Pledge (Read by A. Phillip Randolp and affirmed by the mass of marchers. Later mailed to civil rights supporters.)
1964What Happened in the South, draft press release analyzing the 1964 election results. Unsigned Southern Research Council. November 15, 1964.
'65 or '66Wisconsin resolution defending W.E.B DuBois Clubs, Unsigned Wisconsin NSA. Undated (1965 or 1966)
1965Stokeley's Speech Class, Jane Stembridge, SNCC. March 1965
Versions: Text (HTML) — Published PDF (AKA "Freedom School Notes")
1966?Sunflower County: A Progress Report, Unsigned, MFDP. Undated (probably late 1965 or first part of 1966)
1966?Proposal for a Voter Registration Drive in Sunflower County, Joe Harris MFDP. Undated (probably first half of 1966)
1966?The P.P.C. & The Cooperatives, Unsigned, NSA. Undated
1966?Report re Poor's People's Corperation Personnel Program, Unsigned, NSA. Undated (probably 1966 or 1967)
1966?Poor People's Corporation is Being Talked About, press clippings, unsigned PPC. Undated (probably late 1965 or 1966)
1966Proposal for Financial Assistance to Southern Negro Students, Shirley Wright, SNCC. Undated (probably Spring 1966)
1966SNCC donation update, Brown, SNCC. Undated (probably summer 1966)
1967Notification of decision to expel Atlanta project (AKA "Vine Street Project"), SNCC Central Committee, March 7, 1967
1968Memo announcing expulsion of Stokely Carmichael from SNCC, SNCC Central Committee, July 1968

WATS Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC July 2, 1964
SNCC July 2, 1964
SNCC July 2, 1964
SNCC July 3, 1964
SNCC July 3, 1964
SNCC July 4, 1964
SNCC July 4, 1964
SNCC July 4, 1964
SNCC July 5, 1964
SNCC July 5, 1964

New Section SRC Publications

New Publications

New South,
July-Aug 1961
Freedom Rides
Travel Notes From a Deep South Tourist, by Frank Holloway
The Freedom Ride, by Leslie Dunbar
World Press Views Freedom Rides and the United States
New South,
Oct 1962
They Know They're Niggers
The South's Pattern of Violence Has Changed, by George McMillen
Mississippi: The Mood of the Deep South
, by Claude Sitton
Editorial, University of Alabama Crimson White (re Meredith at 'Ole Miss
New South,
March 1963
The Other Mississippi
Day of Repentance and The New Gospel
A Trail Through the Wilderness, by James Nicholson
Paranoia, Guilt, and Atonement, by Duncan Gray
That All Men Are Brothers
New South,
June 1964
Police Practice in Alabama, (affadavits),
Letter From Leon Dure, re "Freedom of Choice" plans
New South,
Oct 1964
Capital Punishment, Marion Wright
A Kaddish for Whom?, A. Schwarzlieber
Tuskegee and the Good Life, Paul Anthony
New South,
Nov 1964
Poverty and Segregation in the South, John H. Wheeler
Home Again, Al Ulmer
New South,
Dec 1964
The Book Explosion of 1964, Margret Long
New South,
Nov 1965
The Fire That Time, by Samuel Adams
Self Respect in the Alley, by Bill Beardslee
Am I my Brother's Keeper?, by Helen Howard
Some Race Related Deaths in the United States, list 1955-1965
New South,
Fall 1968
New South Notes
The Poor People's Campaign, by Warren Pritchard
Violence in Miama: One More Warning, by John Boone & William Farmar
The Gift, by Ruth Beittel
Terror in Mississippi, by Jack Nelson
Rural Dixie's Plight, by Neil Maxwell
"Law and Order" in South Carolina, by Jack Bass
"To Seek a Newer World", by Phillip M. Stern
To Light the Darkened Joy, by Rabbi Jacob Rothschild
State of the Southern States
Washington Report, by Robert Sherrill

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

10/24/64COREFourth Weekly Mass Study-In, flyer for protest at L.A. Board of Education
10/24/64COREAll Night Vigil at the Board of Education, protest flyer
10/24N-VAC Chronology of protest actions against Van de Kamps employement discrimination Feb 2 - Oct 24, 1964. Prepared for N-VAC press laison Mari Goldman by Bruce Hartford
2/25/66SANEDear Friends letter about Fulbright hearings and opposition to the Vietnam War, Robert Cleland, Chicago SANE

New Letters & Reports From the Field

7/4/63Jane, SNCCLetter to Diane & Jim, re SNCC work plans. Unsigned (possibly from Jane Stembridge to Diane Nash & Jim Monsonis
7/11/63Glenn Smiley, FORNote to James Bevel, re ministerial participation in March on Washington
7/22/63Grace Hewell, HEWLetter to Diane Nash Bevel, re publications kit for community work from Johnson Publications
9/3/63John Henrk Clarke, FWLetter to Jim and Diane Bevel re Winter issue of Freedomways
11/19/63Jane Stembridge, SNCCPersonal letter to Mary King
4/21/64Jane Stembridge, SNCCPersonal letter to Mary King
7/21/64Fay Bennet, NSFLetter to the Millers re obtaining FHA loan for land, (Shaw, MS)
7/31/64Frazen Thomason, DMReport From Clarksdale No. 5, (MS)
7/31/64Levine & Andrews, DMReport with suggestions concerning the Ruleville project, (MS)
2/8/65Canton CORECanton Project January 25-February 8 1965, (MS)
2/9/66 Richard Criley, CCDBRLetter to Lucy Montgomery, re Chicago Committee to Defend the Bill of Rights
2/11/66Annie Devine, COFONote to Lucy Montgomery re the Greenville Crisis
2/25/66Monroe Sharp, FoSEmergency fund appeal letter for SNCC to Lucy Montgomery

New Letters & Reports From Mississippi Freedom Summer

8/14Bi-Weekly Report, Richard Wheelock? COFO?
8/14Ocean Springs report, re violence, threats, and retaliation, Alan Verson, COFO

New Additions to Our Stories

Mary King1964 Revisited: Mt. Zion and the Ongoing Struggle Against Injustice, 2021
Reginald RobinsonInterview by Emilye Crosby re SNCC, Maryland, & the movement, 2015.
  PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata
Larry RubinAn Oral History, interview by Gloria Clark, 2001
Cleveland SellersAn Oral History, interview by Gloria Clark, 2003
Dr. Robert SmithOral History interview (MCHR), by Harriet Tanzman. 2000

Affidavits of Repression, Retaliation & Violence

1964Statement by R.B. Hood regarding police surveillance and intimidation in Stone Co. August 10, 1968

New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

1963Address to the March on Washington by Josephine Baker, August 28, 1963
1964The South And Civil Rights: More Than the FBI, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. York PA Gazette & Daily, December 8, 1964
1965Questions Raised by Bob Moses, SNCC 5th Anniversary
1965Selma's Future: The Unsolved Police Problem, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. York PA Gazette & Daily, April 6, 1965.
1965Violence In Alabama, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. Frontier, June 1965

New Additions to Our Thoughts

Returning to 'Normal' in Education is Not Good Enough  Bob Moses, 2021
Jane Stembridge – A SNCC Origin StoryMaria Varela, 2021

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

Cathy Guertin - SCLC-SCOPE, 1965, VA
Andy Moursund - CNAC, SNCC, CORE, NAACP, 1963-65, MD, NC

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Jim Loewen
Jane Stembridge

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry
The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

No new poems added this month.

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

March on Washington
Freedom Movement Art

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

New Links Added to Film, Videos & Audio

Power to Heal, by BLB Film Productions. Television documentary about the struggle to desegregate hospitals and secure equal and adequate access to healthcare for all Americans. 2015.

Database of Movement Archives and Collections updated and expanded.

RECENT BOOKS by Movement Veterans:

Run: Book One, by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin. Sequel to the March triology. "First you march, then you run." Graphic-novel format memoir by John Lewis recounting the Freedom Movement after passage of the Voting Rights Act — including the pushback of those who resist social change and refuse to accept racial equality and justice, and the continuing struggles of those who believe change has not gone far enough.

Buses Are a Comin': Memoir of a Freedom Rider, by Charles Person. Gripping personal narrative by the youngest of the original 13 Freedom Rider who endured the racist violence in Alabama.

It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. 2021. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

My Race to Freedom: A Life in the Civil Rights Movement, by Gwendolyn (Gwen) Patton. NewSouth Books, 2020. Autobiography & Movement memoir by a long-term stalwart of the Freedom Movement — Montgomery Bus Boycott & Montgomery Improvement Association, student sit-ins, Freedom Rides, student activism at Tuskegee, voter-registration and rural organizing, Selma and the March to Montgomery.

Year Forever in my Veins, by Faith Holsaert. Backbone Press, 2020. Chapbook of poems growing out of letters home to mother and sister during year working with SNCC in Southwest Georgia.

Our Sixties, by Freedom Movement veteran Paul Lauter. University of Rochester Press, 2020. Examination of the values, exploits, victories, implications, and failings, of the "Movement" in the 1960s. Includes chapters about Freedom Summer of 1964, Natchez in the summer of 1965, and a community school in DC, 1966.

Voices from the Mississippi Hill Country ~ The Benton County Civil Rights Movement, by Roy DeBerry, Aviva Futorian, Stephen Klein, and John Lyons. University Press of Mississippi, 2020. History of the Benton movement and personal narratives of local Freedom Movement participants.

A Small Town Rises: A Sharecropper and a College Girl Join the Struggle for Justice in Shaw, Mississippi, by Lee Anna Sherman with Movement veterans Eddie Short and recent college grad Mary Sue Gellatly. Bog Lily Press, 2020. Chronicles the lives of two civil rights activists who met in the tiny cotton-town of Shaw during Freedom Summer and joined forces with local black activist Andrew Hawkins and a host of courageous townspeople to challenge and disrupt the status quo in the heart of the Mississippi Delta.

Tip of the Arrow: the Selma Student Nonviolent Movement, a Study in Leadership, by Charles Bonner. Page Publishing, 2020. An "up-from-below" and "inside-out" examination of, and personal narratives by, the young students of Selma Alabama who from 1963 to 1965 were the tip of the nonviolent arrow in the fight for freedom and equality. Charles Bonner, the author, was one of the main student leaders and then a SNCC field secretary. Today he is one of the boldest civil rights attorneys in California.

Race Man: Selected Works, 1960-2015, by Julian Bond. City Lights Publishers; 2020).

RECENT FILMS & VIDEOS By or About Movement Veterans:

Son of the South a film based on Bob Zellner's autobiography, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek. 2021. The story of how a White Southerner, from a KKK background made the decision to join the Civil Rights Movement as the first white field secretary for SNCC.

SNCC (Trailer). A 2020 film by SNCC photographer Danny Lyon that brings together never seen made during the years he was employed as the staff photographer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The images are layered with archival audio recordings of speeches by, and conversations with, John Lewis, Julian Bond, Dotty Zellner, among others, as well as freedom songs that were recorded by Alan Ribback in churches and meetings in Atlanta in the 1960s and recently rediscovered.

As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them to

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