Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

March 1st, 2023

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Because of Black History month, February is usually our peak month for number of visitors. According to Google, there were 38,746 visits to the CRMA website during February for an average of 1384 per day. This is a 3% decline compared to February of last year (during the peak of the pandemic when so many schools were on remote-learning). On the other hand, it's 16% more than February of 2019 (pre-pandemic) which may be a good sign. Roughly 12% of our visitors came from outside the U.S. On school days, the number of visitors ranged from 1000 to 1800 per day.

As of March 1st, our online archive contains 8902 searchable webpages, documents, and images plus 154 videos in our Vimeo video channel.


Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP) . SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty. The SLP Digital Movement Platform connects modernday users to the mid-twentieth century Southern Civil Rights Movement.

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


AVAILABLE in MARCH: The Struggle of Struggles, by Vera Pigee (1924-2007), edited by Francoise Hamlin, University Press of Mississippi. 2023. New edition of Vera Pigee autobiography excavated by editor Frangoise Hamlin from Pigee's self- published 1970 autobiography. Chronicles Coahoma County MS, NAACP, Women's leadership, grassroots organizing, citizenship schools, voter registration, and the Baptist church.

A Day I Ain't Never Seen Before Remembering the Civil Rights Movement in Marks, Mississippi, by Joe Bateman, Cheryl Lynn Greenberg, and Richard Arvedon. How the civil rights movement unfolded in a small rural town, far from the cameras.

Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. See Submissions details.

Top Five

According to Google, our top-five, most-visited pages in February were:

  1. Freedom Movement Posters
  2. Are You "Qualified" to Vote? — Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
  3. What were the failures of the Civil Rights Movement? (FAQ)
  4. The Other America, Dr. Martin Luther King. (1967)
  5. Poems of the Civil Rights Movement
(Google does not count how often PDF files are accessed, so since most of the documents on our site are in PDF format our "Top Five" list is not as accurate as we wish it were.)


CRMA Video Channel

Our CRMA Video Channel on the Vimeo hosting service provides videos created by Freedom Movement veterans (or their immediate families) and videos created by others that are substantially about Movement veterans. When you visit the channel, please consider adding yourself as a "follower" for social-media metrics. Thanks.

New videos posted in February:


The Way to Freedom Selma and the Making of a Movement, by Northern Light Productions for National Park Service. 2020. Story of courageous ordinary citizens, many of them teenagers, who successfully challenged racism, bigotry, and entrenched power in the 1960s to gain the right to vote. 23min.

Our Stories

Collection: The Freedom Movement Stories We Always Wanted to Tell

Miriam Cohen Glickman ~ Our Mississippi Dilemma, 3min. Transcript

Adam Kine ~ Greenwood, 10min. Transcript

Sherie Labedis ~ Fireball in the Night, 7min. Transcript

Mike Miller ~ The Agitator, 10min. Transcript

Jimmy Rogers ~ Experience with Violence in Lowndes County, 8min. Transcript

Scott B. Smith Jr ~ My Name is Scott B. Smith, Jr., 6min. Transcript

Nancy Elaine Stoller ~ Bowling in Prince Georges County, 9min. Transcript

Rick Tuttle ~ The Brutal Winona Mississippi Jail Beatings of June 1963, 10min. Transcript

Bright Winn ~ Mrs. Magruder, 15min. Transcript

SNCC 50th Anniversary Conference

SNCC 50th #1 ~ Opening Plenary. by California Newsreel, 100min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 50th #2 ~ Early Student Movement Philosophy and Activism. by California Newsreel, 53 min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 50th #3 ~ From Student Activist to Field Organizers. by California Newsreel, XXX min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 50th #4 ~ SNCC Builds an Organization. by California Newsreel, 77min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 50th #5 ~ The Raleigh Civil Rights Movement. by California Newsreel, 79min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 50th #6 ~ Luncheon Keynote: Rev James Lawson. by California Newsreel, 41min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 50th #7 ~ The Societal Response to SNCC. by California Newsreel, 80min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 40th Anniversary Conference

SNCC 40th #1 ~ Conference welcome and remembrance of Ms. Ella Baker, by SNCC veterans, 62min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 40th #2 ~ Remembrance of Ms. Ella Baker, continued. by SNCC veterans, 63min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 40th #3 ~ Ella Baker discussion continued and general discussion, by SNCC veterans. 61min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 40th #4 ~ Workshop discussing strategies and tactics of organizing, by SNCC veterans. 61min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 40th #5 ~ The role of struggle in the development of a democratic society, by SNCC veterans. 39min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 40th #6 ~ Remembrances of the first meeting organizing SNCC, by SNCC veterans. 60min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).

SNCC 40th #7 ~ Remembrance of Ms. Ella Baker by Ann Braden, by SNCC veterans. 41min. Transcript (raw, unedited, not annotated).


New Movement Documents

1942Durham Manifesto, A Basis for Inter-Racial Cooperation and Development in the South, Southern Conference on Race Relations. December 12, 1942
1959State advisory committees reports to U.S. Civil Rights Commission.
1959Equal Protection of the Laws in North Carolina, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights
1964MS Senate Bill No. 2027, by Mississippi Legislature (distributed by COFO). Proposed law defining civil rights activity as felony criminal syndicalism
1964Ruleville Mississippi, a Background Report, unsigned SNCC. Undated 1964
1964Report on federal failure to protect federal prisoners, Ed Hollander, CORE. July 25, 1964
1965The 1965 Civil Rights Law a Hard Look (Voting Rights Act), Carl Rachlin, CORE. Undated 1965
1965Suggested Guidelines for Future Organizational Expansion, James Farmer, CORE. April 3, 1965
1965Outline of Southern Program for Summer 1965 and Memo: Summer Project Workers, CORE Southern Regional Office. April 14, 1965
1965Memo: Services to CORE Chapters, George Wiley, CORE April 20, 1965
1967Schools CAN be Desegregated, U.S. Commission on Civil Rights

Summer Volunteer Parents-Related Documents

9/64Parents Mississippi Freedom Committee of Southern California Newsletter, Vol 1 No. 1, September 1964
9/22/64Minutes: Parents Organizational Committee, by Dorothy Hunn, POC
9/30/64Report: Parents Mississippi Freedom Committee, by Dorothy Hunn, PMFC

Press Releases

7/18/64SNCCSNCC Worker Sues Wallace for $200,000, Bob Zellner.

WATS & Phone Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC, Dedember 18, 1963. Phone report from Avon Rollins of sit-in arrests in Chaple Hill, NC
SNCC December 20, 1963. Phone report from Willie Robertson re police raid on Selma SNCC office
SNCC December 22, 1963. Phone report from Willie Robertson in Selma re police seizure of SNCC documents
SNCC December 22, 1963. Phone report from Willie Robertson re Holiday Inn firing a local activist.
SNCC December 22, 1963. Phone call from Willie Robertson to Dinky Rommily re Holiday Inn firing a local activist.
SNCC, January 3, 1964
SNCC, January 4, 1964
SNCC, January 6, 1964
SNCC, January 9, 1964
SNCC, January 10, 1964
SNCC, January 13, 1964

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

3/1/64SDS/ERAPProspectus for Economic Research and Action Project in Chesdter PA, summer 1964
4/26/64FoSDear Sir, Dick Gregory & Freedom Singer fundraising event. Unsigned Madison WI FoS


New Letters & Reports From the Field

10/6/64Unsigned, CORE/COFOWeekly report, Canton MS, 9/30- 10/6

New Letters & Reports From SCLC's SCOPE Projects of 1965

Carey Stronach campaign flyer, Sussex Co. VA. Unsigned, SCOPE. 7/12/65
Poll watcher authorization forms for Dorothy Turner and Peggy Ryan, Sussex Co. VA. by Carey Stronach (candidate) 7/13/65
Letter to supporters re SCOPE in Sussex County, Lenny Kaufer, Sussex Co. VA. July 15 1965
Letter to Peggy Ryan re political education, Hosea Williams, Sussex Co. VA. SCLC. July 23, 1965


New Additions to Our Stories

Luvaghn Brown Interview by Paul T. Murray (Mississippi)

New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

1964Louisiana Story interview with Jerome Smith, CORE. Freedomways, 2nd Quarter
1964Memo From a Monroe Jail Mae Mallory, NAACP. Freedomways, 2nd Quarter.


New Additions to Our Thoughts

Wasn't That A Time: ... Freedom Singers Matthew & Marshall JonesSusan Erenich


New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month


New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Lorne Cress Love

Shelby Jacobs

New Additions to Our Discussions

Frank Cieciorka's, The Rape of Lady Liberty ~ A Discussion 2023


New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.


New Additions to Poetry

Maria Varela: Casey in New York (late 1970's)


New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

Freedom Summer

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

Recent Books by or About Movement Veterans:

The Struggle of Struggles, by Vera Pigee (1924--2007), edited by Frangoise Hamlin, University Press of Mississippi. 2023. New edition of Vera Pigee autobiography chronicles Coahoma County MS, NAACP, Women's leadership, grassroots organizing, citizenship schools, voter registration, and the Baptist church.

A Day I Ain't Never Seen Before Remembering the Civil Rights Movement in Marks, Mississippi, by Joe Bateman, Cheryl Lynn Greenberg, and Richard Arvedon. How the civil rights movement unfolded in a small rural town, far from the cameras.

Stayed On Freedom: The Long History of Black Power through One Family's Journey, by Dan Berger, Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons. An authorized biography of Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons that brings into focus the lives of two unheralded Black Power activists who dedicated their lives to the fight for freedom. Basic Books, January 2023.

By Hands Now Known: Jim Crow's Legal Executioners, by Margaret Burnham, 2023. Investigation of Jim Crow-era racial violence, the legal apparatus that sustained it, and its enduring legacy. If the law cannot protect a person from a lynching, then isn't lynching the law?

Anne Braden Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches, 1947-1999, Ben Wilkins, editor. Monthly Review Press, August 2022. Representative collection of Braden's writings, speeches, and letters, covering the full spectrum of her activism: from the relationship between race and capitalism, to the role of the South in American society, to the political function of anti-communism.

The Movement Made Us: A Father, a Son, and the Legacy of a Freedom Ride, by David Dennis Sr. & Jr. HarperCollins, May 2022. "A dynamic family exchange that pivots between the voices of a father and son, a unique work of oral history and memoir, chronicling the extraordinary story of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and its living legacy embodied in Black Lives Matter."

Memoirs Of A Revolution Experience Through Poetry And Poems, by Lulu Westbrook Griffin. Page Publishing Co, 2022. The personal story of a young activist in Southwest Georgia during the height of 1960s Freedom Movement who was held for 45 days in the infamous Leesburg stockade.

Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (New Reprint). By Susan Erenrich (ed). New South Books, 2021. Large compilation of valuable original source material on Civil Rights Movement.

Run: Book One, by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin. Sequel to the March triology. "First you march, then you run." Graphic-novel format memoir by John Lewis recounting the Freedom Movement after passage of the Voting Rights Act — including the pushback of those who resist social change and refuse to accept racial equality and justice, and the continuing struggles of those who believe change has not gone far enough.

Buses Are a Comin': Memoir of a Freedom Rider, by Charles Person. Gripping personal narrative by the youngest of the original 13 Freedom Rider who endured the racist violence in Alabama.

It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. 2021. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

Doris Derby: A Civil Rights Journey, by Doris Derby. Mack Books. 2021. Photo and narrative autobiography by long-time SNCC veteran.

RECENT FILMS & VIDEOS By or About Movement Veterans:

Lowndes County and the Road to Black Power, by Sam Pollard & Geeta Gandbhir, Multitude Films in association with The Atlantic. Story of the local movement and young Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organizers who fought not just for voting rights, but for Black Power in Lowndes County. 2022. 90min.


As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them in to us.

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 — Bruce Hartford,

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