Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

November 1st, 2021

According to Google, roughly 22,550 people visited the CRMA website during October for an average of 727 per day. This is roughly 9% more than October of 2019 and 6% less than October of 2020. Given how the pandemic has had varied impacts on schools and remote education it's hard to derive any general trend for those numbers. Roughly 27% of our visitors came from outside the U.S, an unusually high number.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Missing Pages & Images? 404 Errors?
Our website has now become so large (over 7900 items and images) that it's difficult for us to keep track. And sometimes, for some unknown reason, an image or a page disappears (we're trying to figure out why). So we need your help. If you see an empty box on a page where an image should be, or you click on a link and get some kind of "Page Not Found error, please send an email to alerting us to the problem. Thanks for your help.

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner.

Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. See Submissions details.

New Movement Documents

1953The People Take the Lead, Record of Progress in Civil Rights 1948-1953. Unsigned, Community Relations Service. Undated (presumed 1953)
63? 64?Memorandum: On the SNCC Mississippi Summer Project, Unsigned SNCC, Undated (possibly later 1963 or early 1964)
1964? C.O. Chinn Jr. COFO identification letter, Jesse Morris, COFO. (Chinn Jr. was the son of Canton Movement leader C.O. Chinn Sr). Undated (mid-1960s)
1964?Personal Information form, Eartiss James Crawford, COFO. Undated (1963-1966)
1964?Karen Duncan, personal information form, SNCC, Madison Co. Undated (1963-1966)
1964?Richard Tinsley, personal information form, CORE, Neshoba project. Undated (1963-1966)
1964?Preston Ponder, personnel report form, CORE, Meridian project director. Undated (1964-1966)
1964?JoAnn Ooiman, personal information form, CORE, Canton project. Undated (1963-1966)
1964?Personal information notes about Judith Hampton (handwritten). Unsigned NCCJ? Undated (probably 1964 or '65)
1964?Ida Robideau Langford, personal information notes, COFO. Undated (1964-1966)
1964Staff, Canton MS COFO project , Unsigned COFO. Undated (probably summer 1964, possibly summer 1965)
1964The Biloxi Free Herald , unsigned, COFO. Vol. 1, Num. 1, August 14, 1964
1964September 21 (report on McComb MS bombing), Unsigned SNCC
1964Voice of Freedom, McComb MS. November 5, 1964.
1965Arkansas Freedom Centers: Supplies Needed, Unsigned SNCC. Undated (possibly 1965)
1965Note to Lee Bankhead re shipment of supplies, Hal Light, PMA, August 19, 1965.
1967Grant approval for Bolivar County MS voter education project, Vernon Jordan, VEP. April 17, 1967

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

63? 64?CORE?Rally to Support the Southern Freedom Movement, Unsigned (possibly CORE), Undated (probably June of either '63 or '64)
1964FoSPetition to President Johnson and Dept of Justice, Undated (probably later 1964)
1964 Help? — Help? flyer opposed to the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Unsigned anti-civil-rights group (probably from Wisconsin). Undated (probably later 1964)
'64? '65?FASERequest for Contribution to Support Civil Rights Work, Warner Slack, Univ. of Wisconsin, Undated (Probably 1964 or 1965)
9/26/64FoSAppeal to Univ. of Wisconson faculty re federal protection for civil rights workers in Mississippi, Alicia Kaplow, FoS
10/07/64FoSLetter to Pete Seeger asking him to perform at Friends of SNCC concert in Madison Wisconsin, Alicia Kaplow, FoS
10/22/64FoSReply by Peter Seeger's agent declining concert invitation, Harold Leventhal, Agent.
10/26/64FoSLetter to Alicia Kaplow denying request for a Solicitation Approval Card, Richard Johnston, Madison Chamber of Commerce Inc.
1965 Civil Rights Projects Considered for Support. Unsigned, Univ. Wisconsin Student-Faculty Council. May 6, 1965
6/24/1966NSMStrategies to meet evolving challenges, William Strickland, NSM

New Letters & Reports From the Field

9/2/64Mary Lane, Ida Holland, MSNote re donations of food and clothing
9/17/1964Annell Ponder, SCLCCanceled SCLC Citizenship Teachers Training
10/03/64Barbara Jones, SNCCNote to Nicholas Fischer re Adopt a Freedom Fighter program
10/20/64Joann Ooiman, CORELetter to Mr. Ryshpan thanking him for adopting her as a civil rights worker (Handwritten)
10/27/64Joe Stetson(?), COFO?Note to Alcia Kaplow requesting money for bus ticket out of Jackson (Handwritten)
1964?Joann Ooiman, CORENote to Kay re bail information for Canton project, (MS) Undated (presumed 1964 but possibly 1965)
1965Freeman Cocroft, COFONote requesting permission to return to Meridian MS project (handwritten)
11/18/1964Lois RodgersNote to Victoria Gray re financial hardship and request for reimbursement, (handwritten)
3/12/65Milton HerstDonation of fabric remnants for quilts
3/24/65William Beale, UFADonation for Freedom School project, (MS)
3/07/66Farn? HamptonNote to Alcia Kaplow re progress and difficulties in Charleston MS, (handwritten)
4/6/66 Marion WrightInvitation to school desegregation conference, (MS)
6/24/66Alicia Kaplow & Elizabeth FoS/SNCC?Exchange of notes about contacting former SNCC staff
6/29/66Russell James, USDADenial of food assistance, (MS)
8/3/66Senotobia MS SNCC workersNote to Alicia Kaplow re desperate need for financial help (handwritten)
8/5/66Janine(?) HaynesDesperate plea for help with welfare denial addressed to Marian Wright, (handwritten. (MS)
12/29/69Victor Cassidy, SNCCLetter to Wisconsin Historical Society re donation of SNCC papers

New Additions to Our Stories

Sandra AdickesOral History Interview (MS), 1999
Harry BowieOral History Interview, interviewed by Jack Bass & Walter De Vries, 1974. (Audio only.)
Virginia DurrOral History Interview, interviewed by John Egerton. 1990. (Audio recording)
Mary KingOral History Interview, interviewed by Sara Boyte, 1973.
Igal RodenkoOral History Interview, interviewed by Jacquiline Hall & Gerry Cohen, 1974. (Audio recording)
Andy YoungOral History Interview, Interviewed by Jack Bass & Walter De Vries. 1974. (Audio recording)

Affidavits of Repression, Retaliation & Violence

1964Affidavit of Matthew Zwerling, re withholding of voter registration form, 7/20/64
1964Affidavit of Joseph Smith, re voting registration interference, 7/23/64
1964Statement from Rabbi Allan Levine, re Police oppression and brutality, 7/30/64
1964Affidavit of Mary Lee Dixon, re restaurant service discrimination, 7/29/64
1964Affidavit of Erma Jean Miller, re restaurant service discrimination, 7/29/64
1964Affidavit of Roy Bell Wright, re restaurant service discrimination and harassment, 7/29/64
1964Affadavit of Eddie Laroy Johnson, re Black school children slave labor, 7/30/64

New Additions to Our Thoughts

Banning Critical Race Theory Ignores Truths All Students Must Hear Charles Prickett

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

No new memories or tributes added this month

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry
The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

Molly Lynn Watt: Defense Lawyer

New Resource Pages

Martin Luther King Resources on the CRMA Website

SNCC Resources on the CRMA Website

Voting Rights & Literacy Tests Resources on the CRMA Website

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

The Freedom Rides
In the Circle of Trust
Freedom Movement Art

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

New Links Added to Film, Videos & Audio

Molly Lynn Watt 28-minute interview about her book "On Wings of Song: a Journey into the Civil Rights Era"

RECENT BOOKS by Movement Veterans:

Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (New Reprint). By Susan Erenrich (ed). New South Books, 2021. Large compilation of valuable original source material on Civil Rights Movement.

Run: Book One, by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin. Sequel to the March triology. "First you march, then you run." Graphic-novel format memoir by John Lewis recounting the Freedom Movement after passage of the Voting Rights Act — including the pushback of those who resist social change and refuse to accept racial equality and justice, and the continuing struggles of those who believe change has not gone far enough.

Buses Are a Comin': Memoir of a Freedom Rider, by Charles Person. Gripping personal narrative by the youngest of the original 13 Freedom Rider who endured the racist violence in Alabama.

It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. 2021. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

My Race to Freedom: A Life in the Civil Rights Movement, by Gwendolyn (Gwen) Patton. NewSouth Books, 2020. Autobiography & Movement memoir by a long-term stalwart of the Freedom Movement — Montgomery Bus Boycott & Montgomery Improvement Association, student sit-ins, Freedom Rides, student activism at Tuskegee, voter-registration and rural organizing, Selma and the March to Montgomery.

Year Forever in my Veins, by Faith Holsaert. Backbone Press, 2020. Chapbook of poems growing out of letters home to mother and sister during year working with SNCC in Southwest Georgia.

Our Sixties, by Freedom Movement veteran Paul Lauter. University of Rochester Press, 2020. Examination of the values, exploits, victories, implications, and failings, of the "Movement" in the 1960s. Includes chapters about Freedom Summer of 1964, Natchez in the summer of 1965, and a community school in DC, 1966.

Voices from the Mississippi Hill Country ~ The Benton County Civil Rights Movement, by Roy DeBerry, Aviva Futorian, Stephen Klein, and John Lyons. University Press of Mississippi, 2020. History of the Benton movement and personal narratives of local Freedom Movement participants.

A Small Town Rises: A Sharecropper and a College Girl Join the Struggle for Justice in Shaw, Mississippi, by Lee Anna Sherman with Movement veterans Eddie Short and recent college grad Mary Sue Gellatly. Bog Lily Press, 2020. Chronicles the lives of two civil rights activists who met in the tiny cotton-town of Shaw during Freedom Summer and joined forces with local black activist Andrew Hawkins and a host of courageous townspeople to challenge and disrupt the status quo in the heart of the Mississippi Delta.

Tip of the Arrow: the Selma Student Nonviolent Movement, a Study in Leadership, by Charles Bonner. Page Publishing, 2020. An "up-from-below" and "inside-out" examination of, and personal narratives by, the young students of Selma Alabama who from 1963 to 1965 were the tip of the nonviolent arrow in the fight for freedom and equality. Charles Bonner, the author, was one of the main student leaders and then a SNCC field secretary. Today he is one of the boldest civil rights attorneys in California.

Race Man: Selected Works, 1960-2015, by Julian Bond. City Lights Publishers; 2020).

RECENT FILMS & VIDEOS By or About Movement Veterans:

Son of the South a film based on Bob Zellner's autobiography, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek. 2021. The story of how a White Southerner, from a KKK background made the decision to join the Civil Rights Movement as the first white field secretary for SNCC.

As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them to

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