Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

May 1st, 2022

IMPORTANT NOTE: Missing Pages & Images? 404 Errors?
If you encounter an empty box on a page where an image should be,
or if you click on a link and get some kind of "Page Not Found
error, please send an email to alerting
us to the problem. Thanks for your help.

According to Google, there were 34,025 visits to the CRMA website during April for an average of 1134 per day. This is approximately 4% more than April of last year. Roughly 15% of our visitors came from outside the U.S. On school days, the number of visitors ranged from 600 to 2000 per day.

Our site now provides over 8300 pages.


Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.

Top Five

According to Google, our top-five, most-visited pages in April were:

  1. Are You "Qualified" to Vote? — Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
  2. What were the failures of the Civil Rights Movement? (FAQ)
  3. Freedom Rides and Freedom Riders Resources
  4. The Other America, Dr. Martin Luther King. (1967)
  5. Alabama Voter Literacy Test & Voter Application

(Note that most of the documents on our site are in PDF format. But Google does not count how often PDFs are accessed, so our "Top Five" list above omits them.)


Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. See Submissions details.

CRMA Video Channel

Our CRMA Video Channel on the Vimeo hosting service provides videos created by Freedom Movement veterans (or their immediate families) and videos created by others that are substantially about Movement veterans. When you visit the channel, please consider adding yourself as a "follower" for social-media metrics. Thanks.

New videos posted in April:

Chude Allen, Freedom Summer volunteer in Holly Springs Mississippi. Interviewed by students at Stuart Hall High School in San Francisco. 2020. 121min.

Doris Derby: Memorial Service Video Rememberance, by Joyce Ladner, on Behalf of the SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). 2min

Linda Wetmore Halpern, Freedom Summer volunteer in Greenwood Mississippi. Interviewed by students at Stuart Hall High School in San Francisco. 2020.

Interview: Joyce Ladner, By Greg Ivers, 2019. NAACP & SNCC. 100min.

Interview: Jennifer Lawson, By Greg Ivers, 2019. SNCC. 92min.

Interview: Betty Garman Robinson, By Greg Ivers, 2019. SNCC. 66min.

Interview: Joan Trumpauer Mulholland, Freedom Rides, SNCC, Mississippi. By Greg Ivers, 2019. SNCC. 86min.

Interview: Lonnie King, Atlanta Student Movement. By Gregg Ivers, 2018. 61min. Transcript.

Interview: Heather Tobis Booth, Freedom Summer volunteer. By Gregg Ivers, 2019. 64min. Transcript.

Interview: Jacqueline Byrd Martin, McComb MS student protester. By Gregg Ivers, 2020. 85min. Transcript.

Interview: Mike Miller, SNCC. By Gregg Ivers, 2020. 86min. Transcript.

Interview: Connie Curry, by Carole Merritt. Along with Ella Baker was a SNCC "adult advisor", active in Greensboro sit-ins and Mississippi school desegregation. 2005. 62min.

Interview: Jesse Hill, by Carole Merritt. NAACP 1950s voter registration activist, desegregation in Atlanta, founder Black newspaper Atlanta Inquirer, mobilized business support of the movement. 2005. 59min.

Interview: Portia Harden Potts, by Carole Merritt. One of the first African American students to desegregate schools in Atlanta, GA. 2006. 48min.

Interview: Fay Bellamy Powell, by Carole Merritt. SNCC staff member, Selma & Greene County, AL, Atlanta GA. Helped organize the 1965 Selma to Montgomery march., 2006. 150min.

New Movement Documents

1963Freedom Vote ballot, unsigned COFO. November 3, 1964
1966Press release re continuing problems & issues in Mississippi and America, Clifton Whitley (MFDP senatorial candidate)
1966MFDP Statewide Convention flyer. Unsigned MFDP. 6/26/66
1966Election Complaints -- Mississippi re the '66 Mid-Term elections, unsigned MFDP. Nov. 9, 1966
1966Keep Power in Your Hands, flyer urging "Vote-No" on two referendum ballot measures in November 8 election. Unsigned MFDP
1966Freedom's Candidate for U.S. Senate, Clifton Whitley campaign flyer. MFDP. November 8, 1966
1964The Independent, the Freedom Voice of LeFlore Co., Vol III, No. 4. Unsigned, SNCC/COFO. July 25, 1964
1964SNCC Staff Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1. "Not for public use." July 7, 1964
1964SNCC Staff Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 2. "Not for public use." July 28, 1964
1964Freedom School Art Class registration form, Hattiesburg MS. Unsigned COFO. Undated (probably July 1964)
1964?McComb Background, Betty Garman, SNCC. Undated (possibly fall of 1964)
1964Form: Request for Copy of Registration Test and Answers. Hattiesburg, MS. Unsigned SNCC/COFO.
1964Dear Friend fund appeal to northern churches. Barbara Jones, SNCC. Fall 1964
1964Memo: Subsistence for Volunteers in Mississippi fund appeal. Barbara Jones, SNCC. Fall 1964
1965History and Plans of the Indianola Freedom School, chronicles struggle to rebuild bombed freedom center in Idianola MS. Unsigned COFO/SNCC. Undated (probably April 1965)

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

6/14/64FoSDear Friends of SNCC, memo promoting SNCC benefit by Second City. Chicago Area FoS.
2/11/65FoSNote to Alice Kaplow re non-profit permit with Post Office, by Ken Champney, FoS Yellow Springs OH
5/26/65SNCCNote to Alice Kaplow, re financial supporet money order by Margaret L., SNCC
65? 66?SDSThe Grape Society, report on the Delano CA grape workers strike by unsigned SDS. Undated (probably late 1965 or early 1966)
65? 66?????Satyagraha in South Africa, by Fatima Meer. Undated (possibly 1965-1967)
4/26/66FoSDear Friend of Freedom, fund appeal from Monroe Sharp, SNCC Freedom Center, Chicago
4/27/66NORCFund appeal letter re public opinion research on Vietnam War, by Peter Rossi, National Opinion Research Center (NORC)
4/28/66 Letter & information challenging legality of and facts about Vietnam War, by L.T. Wyly
66-68? Report of Non-Group on the University, analyses of possible political action in Madison WI university & community. By unsigned. Undated (1966-68)
66-68? Memo discussing university-community political action in Madison WI, by unsigned. Undated (1966-68)

Documents from the Free Speech Movement, Berkeley 1964

12/7/64Open Letter, to many recipients, Charlie (Brown) Artman. December 7, 1964
12/64Propositions to Be Introduced by the Committee on Academic Freedom, at the December 8th Meeting of the Berkeley Division of the Academic Senate, unsigned. Undated (early December 1964)
12/8?/64Proposed Resolutions(?), unsigned faculty members. December 8? 1964
12/9?/64Statement to Regents opposing Academic Senate resolution supporting student free speech rights, unsigned (possibly a faculty member). Undated (probably December 9-10, 1964)
12/64What Has the FSM Accomplished?, unsigned Executive Committee of University Students for Law and Order (unknown group). Undated (probably December 1964)
12/10/64FSM Newsletter #5. December 10, 1964 (incorrectly printed as November)
12/13/64Support appeal letter for FSM, Bay Area Friends of SNCC. December 13, 1964
12/64Freedom of Speech Isn't Free flyer, unsigned Free Speech Defense Fund. Undated (after the December 3-4 mass arrests)
1965The Berkeley Free Speech Controversy 25-page history, Eric Levine, Berkeley SDS. Undated 1965
1965The Free Speech Movement and the Negro Revolution (52 page pamphlet), Mario Savio, Eugene Walker, Raya Dunayevskaya, Bob Moses. July 1965
12/67Crisis Report: An Analyses of the Present Struggle at Berkeley, 16-page pamphlet. Committee of Graduate Students. Undated December 1967
12/67Crisis Report Number Two, 8-page paper, Irwin Silber, Campus Stop the Draft Week and Movement Against Political Suspensions. December 1967

New Letters & Reports From the Field

3/2/64Pat VailDear Family, letter re Boston school integration and other matters.
9/21/64Unsigned SNCCA Response to the 13th and 14th Bombings in McComb Mississippi

New Letters & Reports From Mississippi Freedom Summer

JulyA Report From Mississippi, Gail Falk, COFO
JulyDear Gang, Pat Vail, COFO
7/3Dear Gang, letter re Greenville project and freedom schools. Pat Vail COFO
7/17Dear Pat, support letter & donation from Operation Mississippi in Pittsburgh PA
7/25Dear Pat, letter from Howard(?) Howe, Harvard Law School

New Additions to Our Stories

Chude Pam Parker AllenInterview by high school students re Freedom Summer & after. 2020
Heather Tobis BoothInterview by Gregg Ivers re Freedom Summer and later activity. 2019.
  PDF transcriptVideo
Jimmy GarrettInterview by high school students re SNCC. 2020
Linda HalpernInterview by high school students re Freedom Summer in Greenwood, MS 2020
Bruce HartfordJim Clark and the Commie Kike, a Selma story 2019
Bruce HartfordInterview by high school students re CORE & SCLC, Alabama & Mississippi. 2020
Jeanine HerronInterview by high school students re Mississippi. 2020
Lonnie King Jr.Interview by Gregg Ivers re Atlanta Student Movement and sit-ins. 2018
  PDF transcriptVideo
Joyce LadnerInterview by Greg Ivers re SNCC, Hattiesburg. 2019
Jennifer LawsonInterview by Greg Ivers re SNCC, Alabama, Lowndes Co. 2019
Jacqueline Byrd MartinInterview by high school students re McComb MS student movement. 2020
  PDF transcriptVideo
Mike MillerInterview by high school students re SNCC. 2020
  PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata
Joan Trumpauer MulhollandInterview by Greg Ivers re Freedom Rides, SNCC, Mississippi. 2019
Mimi Feingold RealInterview by high school students re CORE, Freedom Rides & Louisiana. 2020
Betty Garman RobinsonInterview by Greg Ivers re SNCC

New Additions to Our Thoughts

No new commentaries added this month.

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

No new memories or tributes added this month

New Additions to Our Discussions

SNCC 60th Small Group "F" (Josh Gould, Janet Heinritz-Canterbury, Ed Nakawatase, Frances O'Brien, Muriel Tillinghast)
SNCC 60th Small Group "H" (Miriam Cohen Glickman, Carol Rogoff Hallstrom, Faith Holsaert, Timothy Jenkins)

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry

The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

No new poems added this month.

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

Before I'll Be a Slave...
Pins of the Civil Rights Movement
Freedom Movement Art

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

RECENT BOOKS by or About Movement Veterans:

The Movement Made Us: A Father, a Son, and the Legacy of a Freedom Ride, by David Dennis Sr. & Jr. HarperCollins, May 2022. "A dynamic family exchange that pivots between the voices of a father and son, a unique work of oral history and memoir, chronicling the extraordinary story of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and its living legacy embodied in Black Lives Matter."

Memoirs Of A Revolution Experience Through Poetry And Poems, by Lulu Westbrook Griffin. Page Publishing Co, 2022. The personal story of a young activist in Southwest Georgia during the height of 1960s Freedom Movement who was held for 45 days in the infamous Leesburg stockade.

Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (New Reprint). By Susan Erenrich (ed). New South Books, 2021. Large compilation of valuable original source material on Civil Rights Movement.

Run: Book One, by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin. Sequel to the March triology. "First you march, then you run." Graphic-novel format memoir by John Lewis recounting the Freedom Movement after passage of the Voting Rights Act — including the pushback of those who resist social change and refuse to accept racial equality and justice, and the continuing struggles of those who believe change has not gone far enough.

Buses Are a Comin': Memoir of a Freedom Rider, by Charles Person. Gripping personal narrative by the youngest of the original 13 Freedom Rider who endured the racist violence in Alabama.

It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. 2021. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

Doris Derby: A Civil Rights Journey, by Doris Derby. Mack Books. 2021. Photo and narrative autobiography by long-time SNCC veteran.


As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them to

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner.

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