Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

June 1st, 2021

According to Google, 30,876 people visited the CRMA website during May for an average of 996 per day. Since the majority of our traffic comes from students (grade school and college), June will begin our traditional summer doldrums of reduced traffic. Roughly 14% of our visitors came from outside the U.S.

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner.

Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


Emergency Health Appeal for Freedom Movement Veteran Shirley Green-Reese, a living kidney donor for her is desperately needed.

GoFundMe Donation Appeal for SNCC veteran Hardy Frye who is seriously ill and needs round-the-clock health care. For Additional Information.

Organizing Our Strength for Tomorrow: A Call to Gather on SNCC's 60th Anniversary
A virtual online gathering, October 14-16, 2021 SNCC 60th Anniversary Conference.

Freedom Movement Videos. We want to build up our list of Online Films and Videos. They must be publicly available online and be made by, or be about, or feature Movement veterans — or document some aspect of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s from an up-from-below and inside-out movement point of view. (Note that we're not looking for mass-media stories or short newsclips.)
If you know of a film or video that you think we should include in our list, please email us the following information:
 • URL (e.g:
 • Title (e.g: "Interview with Junebug Jabbo Jones")
 • Creator name (e.g: "Julian Bond Oral History Project, American University")
 • Year (e.g: "2011")
 • Short description (e.g: "Junebug Jones describes his early Freedom Movement involvement.")

FREEDOM RIDERS: The Civil Rights Musical is getting a cast album in partnership with Broadway Records and New York Theater Barn. The album is being crowdfunded . In conjunction, a second album of all freedom songs from the movement (performed by the FREEDOM RIDERS cast) is also being created in partnership with the Freedom Riders National Monument. The album is inspired by the Nashville Sit-In Story album that was created in 1960.

Now Available: It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior. Personal memoir and observations by C.T. Vivian, one of the central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. was on the ground in the action.

Movement art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. If you have paper-based materials, please make good quality photo-copies and postal mail them to us for scanning and uploading (see About Us for postal address).

New Movement Documents

1962Notice: Revocation of welfare benefits Bolivar County MS. October 26, 1962
63? 64?The Democratic Party In Mississippi report, MS. unsigned (COFO?). Undated (could be '63 or '64)
1963Report on James Venable and Wally Butterworth re the KKK , Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. Undated (possibly mid-1964)
1964Petition to the Mississippi Governor opposing segregation, MS, undated 1964. Usigned (possibly Jackson NAACP)
1964Plans for Action at National Democratic Convention, January 16, 1964. Unsigned, COFO
1964Notice: Revocation of welfare benefits Bolivar County MS. May 14, 1964
1964Mississippi's Unknown Murder (Louis Allen), Julian Bond & Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. Spring or summer 1964
1964A Southern Hero Returns Home re Byron De La Beckwith who assassinated Medgar Evers, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. April 23, 1964
1964A Guide to Mississippi, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. 1964
1964Closed Politics in Mississippi re Blacks barred from participating in Democratic Party meetings and votes, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. Undated 1964 (probably July)
1964The eagerness of students attending the Freedom Schools, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. 1964 (probably July)
1964The Regular and Lawful Democratic Party of Mississippi report on the white-only "regular" Democrats, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. June 1964
1964Freedom School teacher Pam Parker (Chude Allen) describes the school, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. 1964 (probably August)
1964Report on the Committee of One Million Caucasians, calling for a KKK racist mass rally. Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. May 19, 1964
1964Advertisement for caucasian mass rally against civil rights, unsigned KKK? July 4, 1964
'64? '65?U.S. Code Title Two: legal basis for MFDP congressional challenge in the House of Representatives election, MFDP reprint from United States Code. Undated (possibly late 1964 or early 1965)
'64? '65?Ways to Line Up Congressional Support for the FDP Challenge, MS. Unsigned, MFDP. Undated (possibly late 1964 or early 1965)
1965Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, Betty Garman, SNCC. Undated 1965
1965Federal Programs Research Work, DC, unsigned, SNCC
1965Bringing the Struggle Home, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. 1965
1965Selma: Changing Tactics, re segregationist strategies, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. Undated 1965

Press Releases

6/25/64COFOPolice harassment trial of NAACP leader Reverend J.D. Rayford, Clarksdale MS

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

Background for Los Angeles Movement Documents
10/64CORESouthern California CORE-Lator newsletter. Vol 1, Num 2
10/10/64COREAnother Mass Study-In at L.A. Board of Education flyer.

New Letters & Reports From the Field

3/18/1962James LaueLetter from Harvard student to Diane and James Bevel re thesis interview, (MS)
3/19/1962Tom RoseLetter to James Laue re information for a book on Negro students, (MS)
5/2/1962Jean Young, SNCCLetter to Jim Bevel re Diane Bevel's arrest in Jackson and organizing a woman's protest
6/19/1962Bobby Talbert, SNCCNote to Diane Bevel re protest arrest on post office steps (federal property), (MS)
9/16/63Joyce Barrett, SNCCDear Friends, appeal from Americus GA for emergency aid
1/5/65Unsigned COFO/MFDPHello Outside World!, report from Holly Springs MS
1966John Buffington, SNCCNote to Lucy Montgomery requesting money to repair bus for West Point MS project
1/10/66Abner J. MivkaTelegram to Georgia governor from Hon. Abner Mivka (D-IL) opposing refusal to seat Julian Bond
1/11/66Oberia Holliday, MFDPAnnouncement and appeal re West Point MS sewing co-op
1/12/66Ann Cook, SWAPAnnouncement from Friends of Student Woodlawn Area Project, Chicago, IL
1/19/66Denise Nicholas, FSTLetter to Lucy Montgomery re research into Black drama at the Shomberg Library
1/26/66Lowell Sachnoff, TTPLetter to Ken Montgomery re Turn Towards Peace strategy and future

New Additions to Our Stories

Charleana CobbInterview re Mississippi Movement and Freedom Summer, by Gloria Xifara Clark (MS). 1995
Aaron HenryNotes on conversation with Aaron Henry, Jerry DeMuth, August 3, 1964
Mrs. Aaron HenryInterview by Jerry DeMuth, August 2, 1964. MS
Don JelinekInterview re Mississippi movement and legal work, by Rachel Reinhard, (MS) 2004
Gayle JenkinsInterview by Mimi Feingold (Bogalusa, LA), 1967
Kay TillowInterview by David Cline re the freedom and labor movements, 2011.
  PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata
Walter TillowInterview by David Cline re SNCC & the movement in Geogria, 2011.
  PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata

Affidavits of Repression, Retaliation & Violence

1964Affidavit of Larry Rubin, Arrests of COFO workers on suspicion of burglary, May 14, 1964
1964Affidavit of Benjamin Small, re police harassement for attending freedom Rally, in Madison Co. MS. May 23, 1964
1964Affidavit of John Bacon, re police harassement for attending freedom Rally, in Madison Co. MS. May 23, 1964
1964Affidavit of James Bennett re police harassement for attending freedom Rally, in Madison Co. MS. May 24, 1964
1964Affidavit of Stokely Carmichael, Arrest of Stokely Carmichael and Charlie Cobb, June 25, 1964
1964Affidavit of Charlie Cobb, re arrest of him and Stokely Carmichael, June 25, 1964
1965Affadavit of Rev. J.D. Rayford, re police harassment of voter registration efforts in Coahoma Co. MS. 1965

New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

1962Tennessee: How to Keep People From Voting , Jerry DeMuth. Gazette & Daily, York PA. December 8, 1962
1963Race in the Land of Lincoln (Cairo IL), Jerry DeMuth. Commonweal, April 5, 1963
1964Christian Reflections on Issues Posed by the Racial Crisis, multiple authors. Social Action (published by the Council for Christian Social Action of the United Church of Christ), May 1964
1964SNCC: Collegians vs The Klan, Jerry DeMuth. Rogue Magazine, August 1964
1964Violence in Mississippi, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. August 1964
1964'Criminal Syndicalism' in Mississippi, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. Texas Observer, November 13, 1964

New Additions to Our Thoughts

Taking A Look At Freedom NowJerry DeMuth, Newsday 1979
Statement on the 60th Anniversary of the Freedom Rides  Bob Zellner, May 2021

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

Dwight Williams - SNCC, GA, AR, 1965-67

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

No new memories or tributes added this month

New Additions to Our Discussions

Louisiana & the Freedom Movement Experience2021

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry
The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

No new poems added this month.

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

March on Washington

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

New Links Added to Film, Videos & Audio

Martin Luther King Interview, by Merv Griffin Show. Eleven minute mass-media interview. 1967.

John Lewis interview, by Ellen DeGeneris show. Six minute interview about Black Lives Matter protests and current civil rights issues. 2020.

Joan Trumpauer Oral History Interview (two hours), by John Dittmer, Smithsonian Institute National Museum of African American History & Culture. 2013.

Recent Books, Films, & Videos by Freedom Movement Veterans


It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. 2021. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

My Race to Freedom: A Life in the Civil Rights Movement, by Gwendolyn (Gwen) Patton. NewSouth Books, 2020. Autobiography & Movement memoir by a long-term stalwart of the Freedom Movement — Montgomery Bus Boycott & Montgomery Improvement Association, student sit-ins, Freedom Rides, student activism at Tuskegee, voter-registration and rural organizing, Selma and the March to Montgomery.

Year Forever in my Veins, by Faith Holsaert. Backbone Press, 2020. Chapbook of poems growing out of letters home to mother and sister during year working with SNCC in Southwest Georgia.

Our Sixties, by Freedom Movement veteran Paul Lauter. University of Rochester Press, 2020. Examination of the values, exploits, victories, implications, and failings, of the "Movement" in the 1960s. Includes chapters about Freedom Summer of 1964, Natchez in the summer of 1965, and a community school in DC, 1966.

Voices from the Mississippi Hill Country ~ The Benton County Civil Rights Movement, by Roy DeBerry, Aviva Futorian, Stephen Klein, and John Lyons. University Press of Mississippi, 2020. History of the Benton movement and personal narratives of local Freedom Movement participants.

A Small Town Rises: A Sharecropper and a College Girl Join the Struggle for Justice in Shaw, Mississippi, by Lee Anna Sherman with Movement veterans Eddie Short and recent college grad Mary Sue Gellatly. Bog Lily Press, 2020. Chronicles the lives of two civil rights activists who met in the tiny cotton-town of Shaw during Freedom Summer and joined forces with local black activist Andrew Hawkins and a host of courageous townspeople to challenge and disrupt the status quo in the heart of the Mississippi Delta.

Tip of the Arrow: the Selma Student Nonviolent Movement, a Study in Leadership, by Charles Bonner. Page Publishing, 2020. An "up-from-below" and "inside-out" examination of, and personal narratives by, the young students of Selma Alabama who from 1963 to 1965 were the tip of the nonviolent arrow in the fight for freedom and equality. Charles Bonner, the author, was one of the main student leaders and then a SNCC field secretary. Today he is one of the boldest civil rights attorneys in California.

Race Man: Selected Works, 1960-2015, by Julian Bond. City Lights Publishers; 2020).


Son of the South a film based on Bob Zellner's autobiography, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek. 2021. The story of how a White Southerner, from a KKK background made the decision to join the Civil Rights Movement as the first white field secretary for SNCC.

SNCC (Trailer). A 2020 film by SNCC photographer Danny Lyon that brings together never seen made during the years he was employed as the staff photographer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The images are layered with archival audio recordings of speeches by, and conversations with, John Lewis, Julian Bond, Dotty Zellner, among others, as well as freedom songs that were recorded by Alan Ribback in churches and meetings in Atlanta in the 1960s and recently rediscovered.

As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them to

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