Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

August 1st, 2022

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According to Google, there were 9,512 visits to the CRMA website during July for an average of 307 per day. This low number reflects our traditional summer-doldrums when U.S. schools are out of session. Roughly 22% of our visitors came from outside the U.S.

As of August 1st, our online archive contains 8,591 viewable items.


Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


Diane Nash and Fred Grey Awarded Presidential Medals of Freedom. These two Freedom Movement veterans were among 17 Americans awarded the nation's highest civilian honor by President Biden. Diane Nash (SNCC) for her lifetime of social-justice work begining with the Nashville Student Movement, the founding of Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Freedom Rides, and voter anti-segregation and voter registration campaigns in places like Selma Alabama and Jackson Mississippi. Fred Gray (NAACP) for his work as a civil rights attorney in Alabama defending the Montgomery Bus Boycott, Rosa Parks, Dr. King, the NAACP, freedom activists, protesters and voter registrants.

"Hundreds of thousands of Descendants of the Emancipation participated, were injured (some permanently), sacrificed, and/or died in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. Hundreds of thousands of patriotic Americans supported the movement. This great honor belongs to them as much as it does to me. I am thrilled to receive this Medal on behalf of all of us." — Diane Nash.
Duke Libraries Partners with the Civil Rights Movement Archive to Sustain Activist Centered History, by John Gartrell, Director, John Hope Franklin Research Center of Duke University Libraries.

Coming in August! The SNCC Legacy Project Digital Movement Platform (SLP DMP). The SLP DMP will be a place where those who want to understand the fight to expand democracy in America can learn from those who were engaged in the struggle.

Now Available: Anne Braden Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches, 1947-1999, Ben Wilkins, editor. Monthly Review Press, August 2022. Representative collection of Braden's writings, speeches, and letters, covering the full spectrum of her activism: from the relationship between race and capitalism, to the role of the South in American society, to the political function of anti-communism.

Now Available: A Grassroots Leadership & Arts for Social Change Primer for Educators, Organizers, Activists & Rabble-Rousers, International Leadership Association, 2022. Twenty-eight organizers & activists from around the globe who are dedicated to expanding the field of leadership from a bottom-up, collective, collaborative, and horizontally-based perspective present a "Peoples Scholarship" showcase of the intersection of the creative arts for social change with a more equitable, diverse and inclusive way of living and working.

Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. See Submissions details.

Top Five

According to Google, our top-five, most-visited pages in July were:

  1. Are You "Qualified" to Vote? — Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
  2. What were the failures of the Civil Rights Movement? (FAQ)
  3. The Other America, Dr. Martin Luther King. (1967)
  4. Civil Rights Movement History: 1960 (student sit-ins)
  5. Photographs: Sit-Ins — Off Campus and Into Movement
(Since most of the documents on our site are in PDF format, but Google does not count how often PDFs are accessed, our "Top Five" list is not as accurate as we wish it were.)

CRMA Video Channel

Our CRMA Video Channel on the Vimeo hosting service provides videos created by Freedom Movement veterans (or their immediate families) and videos created by others that are substantially about Movement veterans. When you visit the channel, please consider adding yourself as a "follower" for social-media metrics. Thanks.

New videos posted in July:

Ron (Cole) Bridgeforth Oral-History Interview, by Brotherhood of Elders Network, discusses Freedom Summer, SNCC, Mississippi. 63min. Transcript.

New Resource Pages

Georgia Movement Resources

New Movement Documents

1956GOP Double-Dealing on Civil Rights, presidential campaign flyer. Democratic National Committee (DNC), undated 1956 (probably September or October)
1961"Balancing Doctrine" vs Peaceful Picketing, unsigned SCEF. Re restricting First Amendment rights in Columbia SC. October, 1961
1962Civil Liberties and Free Speech As Essential Weapons in the Struggle for Civil Rights (excerpts), Anne & Carl Braden, SCEF for SNCC conference April 27-29, 1962
1964Selective Buying Campaign! flyer. Rev. F.L. Shuttlesworth, ACMHR/SCLC. Undated 1964
1964Note from John Lewis to Howard Zinn re importance of upcoming SNCC Executive Committee meeting, 1/7/64
1964COFO News: Natchez Protest, Lorne Cress, Janet Jemmott, Annie Peral Avery. 1/12/64
1964Mrs. Eaton, James Baldwin Challenge Civil Libertarians, unsigned Rights ECLC. Feb-March 1964
1964Memo to Howard Zinn re conference panel with Jim Forman, Bobbie Yancy, SNCC. 3/12/64
1964Letter to Sheslonia Johnson re salary-cut hardship, Dottie and Bob Zellner, SNCC. 4/29/64
1964Report on Beatings in McComb (MS), unsigned, SNCC. June 8, 1964
1964Report on "Regular" (whites-only) Democratic Party Precinct Meetings, unsigned COFO or MFDP. June 16, 1964
1964Report on Precinct Meetings, unsigned COFO or MFDP. June 16, 1964
1964June 17, 1964 Precinct Meetings, Mississippi, report on attempts by Blacks to attend illegitimate precinct conventions by white-only "Regular" Democratic Party. Unsigned MFDP.
1964Chaney-Swchwerner-Goodman update note, unsigned COFO. June 24, 1964
1964Special to the Students and Young People of Ruleville, Indianola, and Drew, unsigned COFO (possibly Freedom School students). Undated (probably July or August, 1964)
1964Thoughts on nomination of Goldwater and liberal reaction to it, Kernish? Undated (probabliy August 1964)
1965Reprisals Against FDP Members, re economic retaliation against supports of the Congressional Challenge. Unsigned MFDP. 1/13/65 (incorrectly dated 1964)
1965Note to Howard Zinn re Executive Committee Meeting, John Lewis, SNCC. 4/19/65
1965Aid For New Registered Negroes Is Being Sought, Charles Hills, Jackson Clarion-Ledger, SNCC reprint. 4/25/65
1965Dear Friends of SNCC, letter about Sunflower voting rights injunction. Margaret Lauren, SNCC. 5/7/65
1967Note to Howard Zinn re help with SNCC application for NGO status with United Nations, Shirley Wright, SNCC. 4/21/67

Summer Volunteer Parents-Related Documents

8/1Minutes – Steering Committee, Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee meeting (PMEC). Adele Siegel, Secty Pro Tem (PMEC)
8/6Steering Committee minutes, Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee (PMEC) meeting. Dorothy Humm, Recording Secty PMEC
8/6Newsletter #4, Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee (PMEC)
8/8Immediate Action list, Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee (PMEC)
8/10Minutes, Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee (PMEC)

WATS Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC June 8, 1964. Beating in McComb-Summit MS

Press Releases

1/16/65COFOIndictment of 18 Accused Murderers, federal charges brought against the killers of Chaney, Schwerner, and Goodman. [Document misdated]

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

6/51NCASPYours for a Genuine Brotherhood: A Survey of Discrimination in the Healthcare Field in Los Angeles, 39 page pamphlet by National Council of Arts, Sciences, and Profession. Undated (presumed June 1951) [See Stood Here Before for a personal remembrance regarding this document.]
11/26/54SCUACSubpoena for Kenneth Hartford: before the California Senate Committee on Un-American Activities (SCUAC). [See Stood Here Before for a personal remembrance regarding this document.]
4/29/64FoSNote from Dottie Zellner to Howard Zinn re financial problems & restrictions affecting Boston Friends of SNCC
6/13/65SDSWon't You Come? SDS National Convention, Camp Maplehurst, Kewadin MI.

New Letters & Reports From the Field

1/12/63 Bob Mants, SNCCNote to Howard Zinn re Zinn's education proposal, (handwritten)
2/3/64Robert Smith, COFOMarks MS Project Report, , January 23 - February 3, 1964
2/10/64 J.R. Lunney, LSCRRCNote to Howard Slater & Howard Zin, re research for Hattiesburg project
2/13/64 Art Waskow, IPSLetter to Howard Zinn, re speech analyzing Freedom Movement and S.W. Georgia
5/28/64Bob Weil & Bill Light, COFOHead of India's Socialist Party arrested in Jackson for violating segregation ordinance (MS)
5/65John HarrisAppeal to friends and supporters of Sunflower County Freedom Movement
5/7/65Margaret Lauren, SNCCLetter about Sunflower voting rights injunction, to Friends of SNCC
5/10/65UnsignedSunflower County Report, significant events April 13-May 9
1/5/66Otis Brown Jr, MFDPLetter to Lucy Montgomery re Indianola communicty center and permit problems, (MS)
1/22/66Lucy MontgomeryReply to Otis Brown re Indianola community center, (MS)
1/27/66Otis Brown Jr, MFDPThank you note to Lucy Montgomery re Sunflower County struggle (handwritten) (MS)
2/7/66Otis Brown Jr, MFDPDear friend, handwritten note about struggle in Sunflower County and effort to build a community center. (MS)
5/3/66Otis Brown Jr, MFDPDear Mrs. Kenneth, letter re new court-ordered elections in Sunflower County (MS)
2/9/67Chico Neblett, SNCCLetter to Howard Zinn re post-SNCC travels & travails (handwritten)

New Letters & Reports From Mississippi Freedom Summer

6/2Pine Bluff AR, Hattiesburg MS, New Orleans LA, Jackson MS
6/5Hattiesburg & Natchez MS, Pine Bluff AR, Enfield NC
6/8Beating in McComb-Summit MS
6/12 Canton MS, Tuscaloosa & Selma AL
6/13Meridian (Mickey Schwerner) MS, Selma AL
6/17Jackson & Hattiesburg MS

New Additions to Our Stories

Cole BridgeforthInterview by Brotherhood of Elders Network, 2021. Video
Bruce HartfordStood Here Before, (2022)
Virginia VolkerInterview, by Willoughby Anderson, SOHP. 2006. Re school desegregation, Birmingham, AL.

Affidavits of Repression, Retaliation & Violence

6/65Affadavit of Mrs. Annie Mae King, Jackson mass arrests and police brutality
6/65Affadavit of Mrs. Maggie Gordon, Jackson police brutality
6/65Affadavit of Wayne Mercer, Jackson mass arrests and police malpractice

New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

1963Hoosier Witch Hunt Norwood Russell Hanson, Nation. 5/25/63. (Re members of the Young Socialist Alliance at the University of Indiana indicted on felony-sedition charges for promoting and attending address of a Black socialist to over 100 students and faculty.)
 Freedom on Campus NY Times editorial reprinted by Committee to Aid the Bloomington Students. 10/12/63
1965The Civil-Rights Movement and the American Establishment A.J. Muste, Liberation. February, 1965.
1966Poverty and the Federal Government, Five Documents from Greenville Mississippi, unsigned Liberation. March 1966. (See Greenville Air Force Base Occupation for background.)
1967Texas Strike Doug Adair. Liberation. August 1967. United Farm Workers Organizing Committee strike in the Rio Grande Valley.

New Additions to Our Thoughts

The U.S. Supreme Court's Attacks on DemocracySNCC Legacy Project (SLP)
MAGA: Back to 1868Bruce Hartford

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

No new memories or tributes added this month

New Additions to Our Discussions

Transcription: SNCC 60th Group-C Cole (Ron) Bridgeforth, Theresa El-Amin, Martha Livingston, Penny Patch, Dorothy Zellner

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry

The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

No new poems added this month.

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

Freedom Movement Art

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

RECENT BOOKS by or About Movement Veterans:

Anne Braden Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches, 1947-1999, Ben Wilkins, editor. Monthly Review Press, August 2022. Representative collection of Braden's writings, speeches, and letters, covering the full spectrum of her activism: from the relationship between race and capitalism, to the role of the South in American society, to the political function of anti-communism.

The Movement Made Us: A Father, a Son, and the Legacy of a Freedom Ride, by David Dennis Sr. & Jr. HarperCollins, May 2022. "A dynamic family exchange that pivots between the voices of a father and son, a unique work of oral history and memoir, chronicling the extraordinary story of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and its living legacy embodied in Black Lives Matter."

Memoirs Of A Revolution Experience Through Poetry And Poems, by Lulu Westbrook Griffin. Page Publishing Co, 2022. The personal story of a young activist in Southwest Georgia during the height of 1960s Freedom Movement who was held for 45 days in the infamous Leesburg stockade.

Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (New Reprint). By Susan Erenrich (ed). New South Books, 2021. Large compilation of valuable original source material on Civil Rights Movement.

Run: Book One, by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin. Sequel to the March triology. "First you march, then you run." Graphic-novel format memoir by John Lewis recounting the Freedom Movement after passage of the Voting Rights Act — including the pushback of those who resist social change and refuse to accept racial equality and justice, and the continuing struggles of those who believe change has not gone far enough.

Buses Are a Comin': Memoir of a Freedom Rider, by Charles Person. Gripping personal narrative by the youngest of the original 13 Freedom Rider who endured the racist violence in Alabama.

It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. 2021. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

Doris Derby: A Civil Rights Journey, by Doris Derby. Mack Books. 2021. Photo and narrative autobiography by long-time SNCC veteran.


As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them in to us.

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 — Bruce Hartford,

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