Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

January 1st, 2023

CRMA Annual Report for 2022


According to Google, there were 16,141 visits to the CRMA website during December 2022 for an average of 521 per day. This is approximately 8% decline compared to December of 2021 (during the peak of the pandemic). Roughly 16% of our visitors came from outside the U.S. On school days, the number of visitors ranged from 950 to 400 per day.

As of January 1st, our online archive contains 8768 searchable webpages, documents, and images plus 108 videos in our Vimeo video channel.


Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP) . SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty. The SLP Digital Movement Platform connects modernday users to the mid-twentieth century Southern Civil Rights Movement.

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


Available in January, Stayed On Freedom, by Dan Berger, Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons. Stayed On Freedom: The Long History of Black Power through One Family's Journey, is an authorized biography of Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons that brings into focus the lives of two unheralded Black Power activists who dedicated their lives to the fight for freedom. Basic Books, January 2023.

Improved Search: In November we revamped and enhanced our site's SEARCH feature so that in addition to being easier to use it now includes image searches. Give it a try and let us know what you think. Thanks.

Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. See Submissions details.

Top Five

According to Google, our top-five, most-visited pages in December were:

  1. What were the failures of the Civil Rights Movement? (FAQ)
  2. Are You "Qualified" to Vote? — Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
  3. The Other America, Dr. Martin Luther King. (1967)
  4. Civil Rights Movement History: 1960 (student sit-ins)
  5. Freedom Rides and Freedom Riders Resources
(Google does not count how often PDF files are accessed, so since most of the documents on our site are in PDF format our "Top Five" list is not as accurate as we wish it were.)


CRMA Video Channel

Our CRMA Video Channel on the Vimeo hosting service provides videos created by Freedom Movement veterans (or their immediate families) and videos created by others that are substantially about Movement veterans. When you visit the channel, please consider adding yourself as a "follower" for social-media metrics. Thanks.

New videos posted in December:

John A. Stokes interview by Ronald Carrington re 1951 student strike against segregation at Moton High School in Prince Edward County VA. 2003. 28min. Transcript.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement Oral History Project Collection

Judge Rueben Anderson, produced by Owen Brooks, VMCRM Oral History Project. Tougaloo College, 'Ole Miss Law School, NAACP Legal Defense Fund, Mississippi Supreme Court. 2006. 58min

Judge Fred Banks, produced by Owen Brooks, VMCRM Oral History Project. 1961 Baltimore sit-ins. Lawyer with the NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund. President of the Jackson Branch NAACP, circuit judge, member of the Mississippi Supreme Court. 2006. 43min.

Rev. Rims Barber, produced by Owen Brooks, VMCRM Oral History Project. Presbyterian minister from Iowa, Freedom Summer volunteer, Delta Ministry organizer in Canton MS from 1965 to 1966. Meredith March, then Greenville MS and Freedom City. Assisted with several re-districting lawsuits and desegregation of public schools. Continued working in Jackson, with community groups and activists to impact public policy. 2006. 95min

Judge Margaret Burnham, produced by Owen Brooks, VMCRM Oral History Project. SNCC & COFO 1963-65 Mississippi, Northeastern University Distinguished Professor of Law; Director Civil Rights and Restorative Justice Project; Co-Director, Center for Law, Equity and Race (CLEAR). 2007. 79min.

Elizabeth & Jane Cooper, re Richmond VA school desegregation, 2003. 16min.

Rev. Curtis W. Harris, SCLC, Dr. King, segregation, protests, KKK, Hopewell, VA. 2003. 39min.

Henry Jay Kirksey, produced by Owen Brooks, VMCRM Oral History Project. As Mississippi state senator championed economic, job and political opportunities for Blacks. . 2004. 58min.

Dr. Milton A. Reid, SCLC, school desegregation, Danville, etc. 2003 17min. Transcript.

Selma and the Long Struggle for Voting Rights, by Bruce Hartford, John Lewis memorial "Good Trouble Vigil for Democracy" vigil, July 20, 2021, Oakland CA., 9min.

Additional New Links Added to Film, Videos & Audio Bibliography

Lowndes County and the Road to Black Power, by Sam Pollard & Geeta Gandbhir, Multitude Films in association with The Atlantic. Story of the local movement and young Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organizers who fought not just for voting rights, but for Black Power in Lowndes County. 2022. 90min.


New Resource Pages

Freedom Songs & Freedom Singing Resources


New Movement Documents

1909Founding platform: National Negro Committee (later renamed National Association for the Advancement of Colored People - NAACP), May 1909
1911NAACP Articles of Incorporation, W.E.B. DuBois, John Haynes Holmes, Oswald Garrison Villard, Walter E. Sachs, Mary White Ovington. May 25, 1911
1922For the Good of America, NAACP anti-lynching poster
1956Academic Freedom 1956, unsigned Rights, ECLC. April, 1956
1957The Un-American in Congress, What Congress Should do to Guarantee Southern Rights, unsigned Rights, ECLC. April, 1957
????State and County Goverment Salaries state of Mississippi. Unsigned. Undated.
1960Platform and Principles of the Mississippi State Democratic Party (white racist). 6/30/60
1963Memo re arrests, convictions, and events in Selma Alabama. Unsigned SNCC (possibly Mary King) 10/10/63
1963Memo to Friends of SNCC Groups, re personnel changes and the Danville phamphlet. Mary King, SNCC. 10/10/63
1964Mississippi: How Negro Democrats Fared Part 2, Unsigned MFDP. 6/23/64
1964?Working Paper re Communication Section, Mary King, SNCC. undated (probably 1964)
1964?To the Staff, memo re Introduction of a staff booklet for SNCC workers, unsigned SNCC. Undated (probably 1964)
1964Freedom Summer photographers and assignments, unsigned (handwritten). Undated (probably June or Jule 1964
1964Urgent Memo re incident reporting procedures, James Forman, SNCC. 6.26.64
1964Volunteers in the State for Mississippi Freedom Summer by home state and town, and project assignment. July 3rd.
1964Law Student Assignments for COFO Summer Project, by R. Hunter Morey, COFO. Undated (probably late June of early July, 1964)
1964Memo re distribution of the Student Voice, unsigned SNCC. July 4 1964
1964Communications section structure and functions, Ilene Strelitz, SNCC volunteer. Undated (probably August 1964)
1964The Voting Record of the Challenged Congressmen from Mississippi, Unsigned, MFDP. 11/24/64
1965The State Democratic Party (Mississippi), report by MFDP. Mike Higson. 9/14/65

Press Releases

1/1/66SNCCLowndes County (LCFO) seeks election injunction in federal court
4/28/66SNCCAlabama's Emerging Political Party
4/28/66SNCCLowndes County Freedom Organization puts Dept. of Justice on notice
4/28/66SNCCPress Prelease
SNCC Asks Investigation of Killing/Beating of Vietnam Bound Negro GI
SNCC Confab Set for Atlanta

WATS & Phone Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC WATS Line Instructions & Policies, James Forman. SNCC. June 24, 1964
SNCC October 10, 1963. Sam Shirah arrested Orangeburg SC
SNCC October 15, 1963. Misc. calls.
SNCC October 16, 1963. Misc. calls.
SNCC October 17, 1963. Nancy to Mike Sayer, misc.
SNCC October 17, 1963. Evening Field Reports
SNCC October 18, 1963. Nancy to Bruce Gordon re Selma voting effort
SNCC October 19, 1963. Misc. calls


New Letters & Reports From the Field

3/4/64T.E. Simar, NCCMemorandum on a Three Day Visit to Canton, Mississippi, COFO & United Christian Missionary Society
8/27/65Christiansen & Green, COFOWeekly Report from Valley View MS
8/28/65Unsigned, COFOReport from Valley View MS
8/29/65Rick Saling, COFOWeekly Report from Valley View MS

New Letters & Reports From Selma Alabama

Selma phone report from John Lewis re voter registration attempt and federal hearing, October, 15, 1963.
Selma phone report re voter registration attempts, October, 17, 1963.
Selma phone reports from Bruce Gordon and Worth Long re arrests and voter registration attempts, October, 22, 1963.
Selma phone report by James Austin re abuse of Rev. Benny Tucker for attempting to use the white restroom in Selma courthouse, October, 25, 1963.
Selma phone report from Tom Brown re Grand Jury subpoenas against SNCC workers and local activists, November 6, 1963.

New Letters & Reports From Sussex Co. VA SCOPE Project

Expense report, unsigned Sussex County SCOPE. 7/3/65?
Dear Dr. Lillibridge, private letter about Sussex County. Unsigned SCOPE. 7/3/65
Rough draft of letter home or report, unsigned SCOPE. 7/5/65?
Weekly Report From Sussex County VA, unsigne SCOPE. 7/12/65


New Additions to Our Stories

Dr. Milton ReidInterview by Ronald Carrington. SCLC, school desegregation, Danville (VA). 2003.
John StokesInterview, by Ronald Carrington re 1951 student strike against segregation at Moton High School in Prince Edward County VA. 2003. Video

Affidavits of Repression, Retaliation & Violence

1964Multiple Affadavits, re Arrests and beatings of James Jones, James Black, Charles McLaurin, Wazir Peacock, and Sam Block in Columbus MS, June 8 1964

New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

1919Thirty Years of Lynching in the United States, 1889-1918, 110-page report on known lynchings, NAACP. April 1919. (By definition, unreported or concealed racial killings cannot be counted.)
1955Changing Patterns in the South Southern Regional Council. Compendium of 42 articles on race & democracy in the South. 1946-1955.
1994Mississippi Musings: Freedom Summer Revisited, Mike Miller (Social Policy)


New Additions to Our Thoughts

"Politics is white folk's business!" The Citizens' Councils of Mississippi Mike Sayer
Selma, and the Long Struggle for Voting RightsBruce Hartford


New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month


New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Colia Liddell Clark


New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.


New Additions to Poetry

No new poems added this month.


New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

In the Circle of Trust
Freedom Movement Posters
Freedom Movement Postage Stamps

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

Recent Books by or About Movement Veterans:

Stayed On Freedom: The Long History of Black Power through One Family's Journey, by Dan Berger, Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons. An authorized biography of Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons that brings into focus the lives of two unheralded Black Power activists who dedicated their lives to the fight for freedom. Basic Books, January 2023.

By Hands Now Known: Jim Crow's Legal Executioners, by Margaret Burnham, 2022. Investigation of Jim Crow-era racial violence, the legal apparatus that sustained it, and its enduring legacy. If the law cannot protect a person from a lynching, then isn't lynching the law?

Anne Braden Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches, 1947-1999, Ben Wilkins, editor. Monthly Review Press, August 2022. Representative collection of Braden's writings, speeches, and letters, covering the full spectrum of her activism: from the relationship between race and capitalism, to the role of the South in American society, to the political function of anti-communism.

The Movement Made Us: A Father, a Son, and the Legacy of a Freedom Ride, by David Dennis Sr. & Jr. HarperCollins, May 2022. "A dynamic family exchange that pivots between the voices of a father and son, a unique work of oral history and memoir, chronicling the extraordinary story of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and its living legacy embodied in Black Lives Matter."

Memoirs Of A Revolution Experience Through Poetry And Poems, by Lulu Westbrook Griffin. Page Publishing Co, 2022. The personal story of a young activist in Southwest Georgia during the height of 1960s Freedom Movement who was held for 45 days in the infamous Leesburg stockade.

Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (New Reprint). By Susan Erenrich (ed). New South Books, 2021. Large compilation of valuable original source material on Civil Rights Movement.

Run: Book One, by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin. Sequel to the March triology. "First you march, then you run." Graphic-novel format memoir by John Lewis recounting the Freedom Movement after passage of the Voting Rights Act — including the pushback of those who resist social change and refuse to accept racial equality and justice, and the continuing struggles of those who believe change has not gone far enough.

Buses Are a Comin': Memoir of a Freedom Rider, by Charles Person. Gripping personal narrative by the youngest of the original 13 Freedom Rider who endured the racist violence in Alabama.

It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. 2021. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

Doris Derby: A Civil Rights Journey, by Doris Derby. Mack Books. 2021. Photo and narrative autobiography by long-time SNCC veteran.

RECENT FILMS & VIDEOS By or About Movement Veterans:

Lowndes County and the Road to Black Power, by Sam Pollard & Geeta Gandbhir, Multitude Films in association with The Atlantic. Story of the local movement and young Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organizers who fought not just for voting rights, but for Black Power in Lowndes County. 2022. 90min.


As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them in to us.

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 — Bruce Hartford,

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