Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

May 1st, 2021

Donations to CRMA are now Tax-Deductable. The IRS has now designated us as a 501c3 nonprofit eligible to receive tax-deductable donations. See our Donations Page for details.

According to Google, 32,600 people visited the website during April for an average of 1087 per day. This is roughly 35% more than April of last year (but in April of last years schools were closed and remote learning not yet in wide use). Roughly 12% of our visitors came from outside the U.S.

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner.

Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


Organizing Our Strength for Tomorrow: A Call to Gather on SNCC's 60th Anniversary
A virtual online gathering, October 14-16, 2021 SNCC 60th Anniversary Conference.

May 20th, 5:30-7:00pm (CDT) 60th Anniversary of 1961 Freedom Rides. An in-person and virtual (online) event. Freedom Rides Museum in Montgomery AL. Co-sponsored by the filmmakers of Son of the South.

FREEDOM RIDERS: The Civil Rights Musical is getting a cast album in partnership with Broadway Records and New York Theater Barn. The album is being crowdfunded . In conjunction, a second album of all freedom songs from the movement (performed by the FREEDOM RIDERS cast) is also being created in partnership with the Freedom Riders National Monument. The album is inspired by the Nashville Sit-In Story album that was created in 1960.

Now Available: It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Movement art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. If you have paper-based materials, please make good quality photo-copies and postal mail them to us for scanning and uploading (see About Us for postal address).

New Movement Documents

1958Letter to Albert Powell about voting rights conference in Washington DC, James Dombrowski, SCEF. March 19, 1958
1958Letter to Fa. John LaBauve about voting rights conference in Washington DC, Carl Braden, SCEF. May 3, 1958
1959Letter re providing assistance to Mound Bayou, MS. Garnet Guild, AFSC. November 17, 1959
1959Letter re providing assistance to Mound Bayou, MS. Garnet Guild, November 30, 1959
1959Note re clothing for children in Mississippi, Patsy H. December 23, 1959
1962SCLC memo to field staff re Internal Revenue Service Report, Andrew Young, SCLC. January 3, 1962
1962Petition protesting denial of vote in Mississippi. Unsigned (possibly NAACP), undated (after the June 1962 primary)
1962Voter registration meeting notes, possibly referring to Colia Liddell. Unsigned, NAACP. September 4, 1962. MS (handwritten)
1963?Report: Home Industry Project, Ruleville MS. David Dennis, CORE. Undated (possibly 1963)
1964Racial Facts, unsigned racist brochure, possibly from the White Citizens Council
1964Louisiana Summer Project, 1964, unsigned CORE.
1964Traffic Harassments and Arrests, Mississippi (partial list). Unsigned, COFO? SNCC? Undated (probably May 1964)
1964COFO/CORE Office Summer Project preparation To Do list, Unsigned, Madison Co. CORE/COFO. June 24, 1964
1964Abraham Lincoln ~ John F. Kennedy, comparison (Louisiana freedom school teaching material). Unsigned CORE
1965Educational Program Workshop, Unsigned CORE. June 1965
1965Notes and Guidelines on News, Public Relations, Unsigned CORE. June 1965
1965Fourth District CORE/MFDP Office summary report, Joanne Ooiman, CORE. June 10, 1965
1965Function of the MFDP/CORE 4th District Office, Lynne Hollander, CORE. October 9, 1965
1965MFDP/CORE 4th Congressional District Office Daily Log, Joann Ooiman, CORE. 1965
1965Activist data stolen from MFDP/CORE 4th District Office, Unsigned, CORE. November 9, 1965
1965Meeting announcement and contact list MFDP/CORE 4th District Office, Mrs. Cathrine Crowell, MFDP. October 14, 1965
1965Resource information & contact list, Unsigned, MFDP. October 16, 1965
1965MFDP/CORE Fourth District Contact List, Unsigned, MFDP/CORE. November 4, 1965
1967?Memo to Anyone Interested in Following Through (re programs needed in MS), Bob Beech, DM. Undated (possibly 1967)

WATS Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC undated, possibly July 4, 5, or 6 1964

Press Releases

4/27/58RCNLVoting Restrictions in Mississippi, Aaron Henry RCNL, Albert Powell MPVL

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

8/10/64N-VACN-VAC to demonstrate against Van de Kamps during trial, unsigned press release
9/64DuBoisWest L.A. DuBois Club flyer, unsigned
9/64CORETo the Public: An Extreme Measure?, flyer about fast against school segregation. Unsigned L.A. CORE
9/64COREWhy We Are Demonstrating, flyer opposing school segregation. Unsigned L.A. CORE
9/1/64CORELetter to Freedom House organizing committee re withdrawal of support for West Oakland project. Gretchen Kittridge, Campus CORE (UC Berkeley)
9/4/64COREBail-raising party flyer (Bank of America victory), unsigned Bruin CORE

New Letters & Reports From the Field

10/29/62Unsigned, SNCCLetter to Charles McLaurin re police harrassment of James Jones and others trying to register to vote in Coahoma Co. MS
5/4/64Unsigned, SNCCJohn Due (NCC) arrested in Liberty MS while collecting affadavits for USCCR
5/21/64John Papworth, vol.Two Incidents of Arrest and Imprisonment of Papworth, Rubin, & others in Oxford and Belzoni MS
9/30/63Casey HaydenDear Stokely, letter re Bob Moses, Art Waskow & IPS
6/13/64Peggy Ewan, COREDear People, letter from summer volunteer re journey South & CORE training, Plaquimines, LA
6/28/64R. J. Miles, PCVLStatement re police harassment and traffic violations against R.J. Miles of the Panola Co. Voters League
6/29/64Unsigned, SNCCSNCC staff worker Pete Stoner arrested and beaten, Hattiesburg MS
6/30/64Unsigned, COFOIncident Sheet - Volunteers arrested by Jackson police
7/2/64Unsigned, SNCCClarksdale -- Rev. Rayford's Trial
7/9/64Unsigned, COFOIncident Sheet - Arrest of folk singer Roger Johnson in Bentonia MS
7/11/64Unsigned, COFOIncident Sheet - Volunteer delivering books for Freedom Library arrested in Madison Co. MS
7/11/64Unsigned COFOArrest of Harry Malm in Canton MS.
7/21/64Yvonne Klein, COFOLes Johnson Arrested, Clarksdale, MS.
11/25/64Unsigned, COFOArrests of Sears Buckley and Fred Hamburger in Columbus MS
12/19/64Name RedactedNote to Dorothy Zellner from a husband opposed to his wife's participation in the Freedom Movement

New Additions to Our Stories

James LawsonInterview re Early Involvement in the Movement, 1983
Joan TrumpauerOral History Interview (MS)
Charles McLaurinInterview by Emilye Crosby re SNCC & the movement, 2015.
  PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata
Cleveland SellersInterview by John Dittmer, re NAACP, NAG, SNCC, & movement in SC and MS, 2013.
  PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata
Shirley Miller SherrodInterview by Joseph Mosnier, re SNCC & the movement in Baker Co. GA, 2011.
  PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata
Euvester SimpsonInterview by John Dittmer, re SNCC, COFO, MFDP and the movement in rural MS, 2013.
  PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata
A.Z. YoungInterview by Mimi Feingold (Bogalusa, LA)

New Additions to Our Thoughts

"More Than a Hamburger"Courtland Cox
Hate Against Asian Americans & Asian WomenMarion Kwan
Jim Crow Voting Laws ~ Then and Now Bruce Hartford

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

Phillip H. Savage - NAACP, 1961-1969, MS, LA, AL, KY, TN

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Chandler Davidson

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry
The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

No new poems added this month.

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

Freedom Is a Constant Struggle
Freedom Summer
Selma, Lord, Selma
March to Montgomery
In the Circle of Trust
Freedom Singing

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

Recent Books, Films, & Videos by Freedom Movement Veterans


It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

My Race to Freedom: A Life in the Civil Rights Movement, by Gwendolyn (Gwen) Patton. NewSouth Books, 2020. Autobiography & Movement memoir by a long-term stalwart of the Freedom Movement — Montgomery Bus Boycott & Montgomery Improvement Association, student sit-ins, Freedom Rides, student activism at Tuskegee, voter-registration and rural organizing, Selma and the March to Montgomery.

Year Forever in my Veins, by Faith Holsaert. Backbone Press, 2020. Chapbook of poems growing out of letters home to mother and sister during year working with SNCC in Southwest Georgia.

Our Sixties, by Freedom Movement veteran Paul Lauter. University of Rochester Press, 2020. Examination of the values, exploits, victories, implications, and failings, of the "Movement" in the 1960s. Includes chapters about Freedom Summer of 1964, Natchez in the summer of 1965, and a community school in DC, 1966.

Mississippi & After: A Life in Equal Justice Law, by Gil Venable (1942-2019), One Monkey Books, 2020. Memoir of a law student assisting the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law in Jackson, MS.

Voices from the Mississippi Hill Country ~ The Benton County Civil Rights Movement, by Roy DeBerry, Aviva Futorian, Stephen Klein, and John Lyons. University Press of Mississippi, 2020. History of the Benton movement and personal narratives of local Freedom Movement participants.

A Small Town Rises: A Sharecropper and a College Girl Join the Struggle for Justice in Shaw, Mississippi, by Lee Anna Sherman with Movement veterans Eddie Short and recent college grad Mary Sue Gellatly. Bog Lily Press, 2020. Chronicles the lives of two civil rights activists who met in the tiny cotton-town of Shaw during Freedom Summer and joined forces with local black activist Andrew Hawkins and a host of courageous townspeople to challenge and disrupt the status quo in the heart of the Mississippi Delta.

Tip of the Arrow: the Selma Student Nonviolent Movement, a Study in Leadership, by Charles Bonner. Page Publishing, 2020. An "up-from-below" and "inside-out" examination of, and personal narratives by, the young students of Selma Alabama who from 1963 to 1965 were the tip of the nonviolent arrow in the fight for freedom and equality. Charles Bonner, the author, was one of the main student leaders and then a SNCC field secretary. Today he is one of the boldest civil rights attorneys in California.

Race Man: Selected Works, 1960-2015, by Julian Bond. City Lights Publishers; 2020).

"Troublemaker" Memories of the Freedom Movement, by Bruce Hartford. Westwind Writers, 2019. Personal boots-on-the-ground memoir of four years service in the American Civil Rights Movement, 1963-1967.

Southern White Girl Seeks Social Change: A Twentieth Century Memoir, by Nancy Stoller. Bright Stuff, 2019. A memoir from the dawn of SNCC, women's liberation, and young people who "de-segregated" the US, each body on the line, every eye on the prize.

Acts of Resistance: A Freedom Rider Looks Back on the Civil Rights Movement, by Judith Frieze Wright. Apple Bay Publishing, 2019. A memoir of one person's experience in Mississippi during the early sixties.

Mississippi Reckoning, (novel) by Mitchell Zimmerman. Amazon/Kindle Direct Publishing 2019. The story of a despairing man's pursuit of justice for the victims of segregationist brutality, set against a sweeping backdrop of white supremacy rampant and the civil rights struggles of the 1940s and 1960s.


Son of the South a film based on Bob Zellner's autobiography, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek. The story of how a White Southerner, from a KKK background made the decision to join the Civil Rights Movement as the first white field secretary for SNCC.

SNCC (Trailer). A 2020 film by SNCC photographer Danny Lyon that brings together never seen made during the years he was employed as the staff photographer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The images are layered with archival audio recordings of speeches by, and conversations with, John Lewis, Julian Bond, Dotty Zellner, among others, as well as freedom songs that were recorded by Alan Ribback in churches and meetings in Atlanta in the 1960s and recently rediscovered.

1967 NBC News Interview with Martin Luther King, that was never broadcast and not made available until 2018. (27 minutes.)

Traveling With Dr. King, by Sunnylands & Gandhi-King Institute for Nonviolence. 2019. Video remembrance by people who knew and worked closely with Dr. King.

Iowans Return to Freedom Summer, by Keeping History Alive foundation. 2018. Firsthand accounts from six Freedom Summer volunteers from Iowa who reflect on their motivations, fears, triumphs and the life altering events that took place 50 years ago.

Heather Booth: Changing the World, a documentary film by Lily Rivlin. 2017. How the Civil Rights Movement inspired SNCC activist and Freedom Summer volunteer Heather Booth to a lifetime of fighting for social justice.

Stand for Freedom: The Life & Times of Willie B. Wazir Peacock The story of Willie Peacock, one of the original SNCC field secretaries organzing in the Mississippi Delta. YouTube.

They Say I'm Your Teacher, nine minute video by Lucy Phenix about the Citizenship Schools (exerpted from the film You Got to Move: Stories of Change in the South.)

As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them to

Copyright ©
(Labor donated)