Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

December 1st, 2022

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According to Google, there were 20,389 visits to the CRMA website during November for an average of 680 per day. This is approximately 10% less than November of last year (during the peak of the pandemic). Roughly 82% of our visitors came from outside the U.S. On school days, the number of visitors ranged from 600 to 900 per day.

As of December 1st, our online archive contains 8725 viewable items (documents, articles, images, etc). plus 98 videos in our Vimeo video channel.


Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP) . SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty. The SLP Digital Movement Platform connects modernday users to the mid-twentieth century Southern Civil Rights Movement.

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


Improved Search: This month we revamped and enhanced our site's SEARCH feature so that in addition to being easier to use it now includes image searches. Give it a try and let us know what you think. Thanks.

Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. See Submissions details.

Top Five

According to Google, our top-five, most-visited pages in November were:

  1. Are You "Qualified" to Vote? — Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
  2. What were the failures of the Civil Rights Movement? (FAQ)
  3. The Other America, Dr. Martin Luther King. (1967)
  4. Civil Rights Movement History: 1960 (student sit-ins)
  5. Voter Registration in Alabama Before the Voting Rights Act
(Google does not count how often PDF files are accessed, so since most of the documents on our site are in PDF format our "Top Five" list is not as accurate as we wish it were.)

CRMA Video Channel

Our CRMA Video Channel on the Vimeo hosting service provides videos created by Freedom Movement veterans (or their immediate families) and videos created by others that are substantially about Movement veterans. When you visit the channel, please consider adding yourself as a "follower" for social-media metrics. Thanks.

New videos posted in November:

Stand For Freedom: the Life and Times of Willie B. Wazir Peacock, by Lis Cox, 2014. 124min.
  Excerpt discussing organizing, 6min.
  Excerpt a shooting in Greenwood MS, 5min.
  Excerpt about courage, 7min.

In the Mississippi River, Martyrs of the Mississippi Movement, Freedom Summer 50th. Judy Richardson, C. Leigh McInnis, Rita Schwerner Bender, Timothy Jenkins, Hollis Watkins, Freedom Singers. 84min.

Heroes and Sheroes of Freedom Summer, Freedom Summer 50th. Danny Glover, Judy Richardson, Timothy Jenkins, 58min.

My Mother and Father Believe Ours Is a Good Country, by Chude Allen, 7min. Transcript

Albert Turner & the Rocking Chair, by Bruce Hartford, 7min. Transcript

'Inciting to Riot' in Selma Alabama, by Stu House, 7min. Transcript


New Audio recordings added in November

Ellis Howard Interview by Mimi Feingold re Jonesboro LA. 53min. (Audio Only) Transcript

Oral-History interview of Modjeska Simkins by Jacquelyn Hall (SOHP), re NAACP and the Movement in South Carolina, 345min. (Audio Only) Transcript.


New Resource Pages

Montogmery Bus Boycott & Rosa Parks Resources

Women in the Civil Rights Movement Resources


New Movement Documents

1962 The Right to Vote...100 Years Later, unsigned 4-page appeal and SNCC description. Undated (probably 1962)

1962 Legal memorandum re challenging Democratic primary in Mississippi, unsigned. Undated (presumably after June 5, 1962)

1963 Dollars for Democracy, donation pledge form. Unsigned SNCC. Undated (probably 1963)

1963 Freedom Vote, sample ballot, Mississippi. Unsigned COFO, election of November 3 1963

1964 Mississippi Summer Freedom School Program, general announcement, location unknown. Unsigned, undated.

1964 Mississippi Freedom Schools, New Houses of Liberty, general report. Unsigned SNCC. (For full text see Joyce Brown poem.

1964 Platform of the Mississippi Freedom School Convention (scanned original), by Freedom School student delegates

1965 Memo re press contacts, to Friends of SNCC offices. Betty Garman, SNCC. March 19, 1965

1965 Mass Meeting flyer template, Unsigned, SCLC/SCOPE. Undated 1965 (probably June or July)

1965 First Annual Virginia SCLC Convention program, Unsigned, Virginia SCLC. July 3, 1965

1965 Register to Vote flyer, Unsigned, SCLC/SCOPE. Sussex County, VA. August 2, 1965

1966 Draft press release re denial and suppression of voting rights in Mississippi, Clifton R. Whitley, candidate for U.S. Senate. January 9, 1966

Summer Volunteer Parents-Related Documents

8/12 Report: Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee, Unsigned PMEC.

8/13 Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee newsletter No. 5, Unsigned, PMEC

8/17 Report: Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee, Dorothy Hunn, PMEC

8/17 Statement: Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee, Arthur Carstens, PMEC

8/21 Minutes: Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee,unsigned PMEC

8/23 Memo: Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee, unsigned, PMEC

8/27 Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee newsletter No. 7, unsigned, PMEC

8/31 Minutes: Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee, Dorothy Hunn, PMEC

WATS & Phone Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC August 9, 1962. Attack on Louis Allen

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

2/11/65 FoS Dear Alice, thank you note for funds, Lee McCowen. (handwritten)

3/12/65 FoS Dear Alicia, letter from students in Wausau re civil rights & SNCC. Marty Holmquist.

3/22/65 FoS Letter of Appreciation for Friends of SNCC, James Sykes, YMCA

3/25/65 FoS Dear Friends, appeal for financial support for a Mississippi freedom worker, Vince Ferrar? (handwritten)


New Letters & Reports From the Field

8/26/64 Cornelia Mack, COFO Dear Family and Friends , letter/report from Hattiesburg project (MS)

9/9/64 Many SNCC/COFO  Letter to Burke Marshall, Dept. of Justice, re terrorist violence in McComb MS

9/24/64 Eric Orr, COFO/CORE Weekly Report (federal programs), Madison Co. (MS)

9/27/64 Charles Prickett, COFO/CORE Life and Loves of Charles Prickett weekly report, Madison Co. (MS)

9/27/64 Phil Sharp, COFO Daily Report, Madison Co. (MS)

9/27/64 Arlene Bock, COFO/CORE Weekly Report, Madison Co. (MS)

9/27/64 Tom Ramsey? COFO Weekly Report, Madison Co. (MS)

9/28/64 Mary Ann Shupenko, CORE Daily Report, Madison Co. (MS)

9/28/64 Mary Ann Shupenko, CORE Office Management: Legal, Comm. & Finances, Madison Co. (MS)

9/28/64 Nancy Jervis, COFO/CORE Weekly Report, Madison Co. (MS)

9/28/64 Unsigned COFO/CORE Weekly Report from Valley View, Madison Co. (MS)

Reports from Sussex Co. VA SCOPE Progect

1965 Freedom Songs, lyrics. SCOPE, undated

1965 Santa Barbara SCOPE—Sussex County Virginia report. Unsigned SCOPE. Undated.

1965 Public works petition, Sussex Co. VA. Unsigned SCOPE. Undated

1965 On Party Loyalty, Democratic Party campaign flyer. Carey Stronach Volunteers (SCOPE). Undated.

Phone Reports from Selma Alabama

1963 SNCC October, 15, 1963. Selma phone report from John Lewis re voter registration attempt and federal hearing.

1963 SNCC October, 17, 1963. Selma phone report re voter registration attempts.

1963 SNCC October, 22, 1963. Selma phone reports from Bruce Gordon and Worth Long re arrests and voter registration attempts.

1963 SNCC October, 25, 1963. Selma phone report by James Austin re abuse of Rev. Benny Tucker for attempting to use the white restroom in Selma courthouse.

1963 SNCC November, 6, 1963. Selma phone report from Tom Brown re Grand Jury subpoenas against SNCC workers and local activists.

New Letters & Reports From Mississippi Freedom Summer

1964 Mississippi Diary, William Myers & Clark Forman, ECLC


New Additions to Our Stories

Ira Grupper Oral-History Interview by Sarah Thusen, 2006 77-pages (MS & KY

Ellis Howard Interview by Mimi Feingold re Jonesboro LA. 1967

Phil McKenna SCOPE — the Summer of 1965 (VA)

Henry Twine Interview, by David Colburn re St. Augustine FL movement of 1963-64


New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

1956 On Segregation The Crisis in Race Relations & Two Nations—White and Black. By Leo Huberman & Paul Sweezy. Monthly Review, June 1956.

1958 Report From Little Rock, David Thoreau Wieck, Liberation October 1958

1961 A Lawyer's Case for Civil Disobedience, Harris Wofford. Liberation, January 1961.

1964 Law Professors' Statement on the Federal Government's Power to Act in Mississippi multiple signers, Rights, ECLC. July 1, 1964.


New Additions to Our Thoughts

More Than Condolences, My Late Husband Needs You To Vote  Shirley Sherrod


New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month


New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Staughton Lynd


New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.


New Additions to Poetry

The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

No new poems added this month.


New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

No new photos added this month


Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.


Recent Books by or About Movement Veterans:

By Hands Now Known: Jim Crow's Legal Executioners, by Margaret Burnham, 2022. Investigation of Jim Crow-era racial violence, the legal apparatus that sustained it, and its enduring legacy. If the law cannot protect a person from a lynching, then isn't lynching the law?

Anne Braden Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches, 1947-1999, Ben Wilkins, editor. Monthly Review Press, August 2022. Representative collection of Braden's writings, speeches, and letters, covering the full spectrum of her activism: from the relationship between race and capitalism, to the role of the South in American society, to the political function of anti-communism.

The Movement Made Us: A Father, a Son, and the Legacy of a Freedom Ride, by David Dennis Sr. & Jr. HarperCollins, May 2022. "A dynamic family exchange that pivots between the voices of a father and son, a unique work of oral history and memoir, chronicling the extraordinary story of the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and its living legacy embodied in Black Lives Matter."

Memoirs Of A Revolution Experience Through Poetry And Poems, by Lulu Westbrook Griffin. Page Publishing Co, 2022. The personal story of a young activist in Southwest Georgia during the height of 1960s Freedom Movement who was held for 45 days in the infamous Leesburg stockade.

Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (New Reprint). By Susan Erenrich (ed). New South Books, 2021. Large compilation of valuable original source material on Civil Rights Movement.

Run: Book One, by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin. Sequel to the March triology. "First you march, then you run." Graphic-novel format memoir by John Lewis recounting the Freedom Movement after passage of the Voting Rights Act — including the pushback of those who resist social change and refuse to accept racial equality and justice, and the continuing struggles of those who believe change has not gone far enough.

Buses Are a Comin': Memoir of a Freedom Rider, by Charles Person. Gripping personal narrative by the youngest of the original 13 Freedom Rider who endured the racist violence in Alabama.

It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. 2021. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

Doris Derby: A Civil Rights Journey, by Doris Derby. Mack Books. 2021. Photo and narrative autobiography by long-time SNCC veteran.


As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them in to us.

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 — Bruce Hartford,

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