Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)

What's New & Announcements
March 1st, 2021

Donations to CRMA are now Tax-Deductable. The IRS has now designated us as a 501c3 nonprofit eligible to receive tax-deductable donations. See our Donations Page for details.

According to Google, 41,983 people visited the website during February for an average of 1499 per day. On school days, the number of visitors ranged from 1000 to 2000 per day. Roughly 12% of our visitors came from outside the U.S.

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner.

Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project. Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

The SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


Available online & in some theaters: Son of the South a film based on Bob Zellner's autobiography, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek, written & directed by Alabama native Barry Alexander Brown and produced by Spike Lee. The story of how a White Southerner, from a KKK background made the decision to join the Civil Rights Movement as the first white field secretary for SNCC.

Now Available: Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (January 2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

Civil Rights Veterans Relief Fund (CRVRF) Sacrifices: Not Forgotten. The Joan Trumpauer Foundation and other organizations are raising funds to support Freedom Movement veterans who have been impacted by Covid and the economy. Flyer.

Movement art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. If you have paper-based materials, please make good quality photo-copies and postal mail them to us for scanning and uploading (see About Us for postal address).

New Movement Documents

????Mound Bayou MS canvas sheet (Bolivar Co.), Unsigned, undated
1961?Mississippi population statistics, undated (based on 1960 census). Unsigned, SNCC. Undated
1962?This is Sunflower County, Mississippi, MS. Unsigned, SNCC. Undated (possibly 1962)
1962?Statistical Report on Forrest County, MS. Unsigned, SNCC, undated (possibly 1962 or 1963)
1963Federal Prosecution & Civil Rights in Albany Georgia, unsigned SNCC. Undated (probably August or September of 1963)
1964Dear Friends of SNCC and Parent's Committees, Betty Garman, SNCC. Undated (probably June or July 1964
1964Letter to Jack Wasserman of NSF, re federal programs for northern MS. Mary Jennings, COFO. July 20, 1964
1964White Community Project Report - Biloxi, MS. Unsigned COFO. July 22, 1964
1964The Mississippi Summer Project report. Unsigned SNCC? COFO? 1964
64? 65?First District Report (MS), unsinged SNCC. Undated (between fall 1964 & spring 1965)
64? 65?Legal Peace Corps (proposal), unsigned. Undated (possibly '64 or '65 or later)
1965Memo to Friends of SNCC re Hammermill Paper Co re Selma Alabama. "Betty Garman & John Perdew, SNCC. Undated (possibly February 1965)
1965Selma, Alabama (report), Silas Norman & John Love, SNCC. Early March (just before Bloody Sunday)
1965Memo to the Staff: Provisions of the Voting Rights Bill, Marion Barry, SNCC. August 8, 1965
1965Proposal for a Freedom Information Center, unsigned FIS. Undated (possibly November 1965)
1965Dear Friend thank-you letter & fund appeal to supporters, John Lewis, SNCC. November 1965
1965To Cynthia Washington: Prospectus for a SNCC Store, Don Shaw & Boston Friends of SNCC. November 1965
66?Report re Summary of Meeting on Structure. Unsigned, SNCC. Undated (possibly 1966)
1966Migrant Farmworkers Project: Report to the SNCC Staff, Gren Whitman, SNCC. Undated 1966
1966Memo on school desegregation, Betty Garman, SNCC. March 2, 1966
1966Research report: Crisp County GA, unsigned, SNCC. April, 1966
1966News of the Field #7, Unsigned, SNCC. April 6, 1966
1966Memo to Staff re, John Lewis' resignation and Stokely Carmichael, SNCC Communications, July 26, 1966
1966SNCC Charts a Course, Stokely Carmichael interview. May 1966 (just before "Black Power"
1967Joint Statement on racism & imperialism, SNCC, MPI, FUPI. January 25, 1967
1967Speech at the University of Puerto Rico, January 25 1967
1967Speech to University of Puerto Rico student body, Stokely Carmichael, SNCC. January 28, 1967
1968Honky Harrassment of Chairman Rap, unsigned SNCC. March 3, 1968

WATS Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC July 28, 1964
SNCC July 28-30, 1964
SNCC July 27-31, 1964
SNCC July 31, 1964
SNCC July 31, 1964

Press Releases

4/8/66SNCCCordele GA School Protests
1/27/67SNCCJoint Statement of SNCC and the Movement for Puerto Rican Independence
3/27/67SNCCThomas Wansley: a Black Brother "Lynched!"

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

63? 64?BAGCase Study in Direct Action: The Boston Action Group vs Wonder Bread. Unsigned. Undated (probably late 1963 or sometime in 1964)
7/10-15N-VAC Van de Kamps injuction against the sip-in tactic
Injunction, declaration of service #1
Injunction, declaration of service #2
Declaration of Robert Hudecek
Declaration #2 of Robert Hudecek
Declaration of Russel I. Kelly
Declaration #2 of Russel I. Kelly
Declaration of Everett W. Brown
Order to Show Cause in re Contempt

New Letters & Reports From the Field

8/4/63Jane Stembridge, SNCCLetter to Anne Braden re MS & Southern Education Center
8/4/63Jane Stembridge, SNCCLetter to Constance Curry, re literacy & Southern Education Center
8/4/63Jane Stembridge, SNCCLetter to Suzanne Freund, re literacy programs
8/5/63Jane Stembridge, SNCCLetter to Bob Moses re Southern Education Center and Tougaloo Work Study Program
8/5/63Jane Stembridge, SNCCLetter to Tom Kahn, re Tougaloo Work Study Program
11/22/65Southwest Georgia SNCCSouthwest Georgia SNCC Field Report
10/17/66Robert Gelgach Letter to Lucy Montgomery, re Cook for Congress campaign (IL)

New Letters & Reports From Mississippi Freedom Summer

7/21Report from Moss Point, Unsigned COFO
7/22Report on meeting with Joe _____, MS (handwritten), Wesley A_______
7/22Report on meeting with Ralph Wisedess?, MS (handwritten), Wesley A_______
7/23Report on meeting with Rev. S_____ Mason?, MS (handwritten)
7/24Memo to George (Raymond?), re request for speaker in Rankin Co. MS, Natalie Tompkins, COFO
7/24Report from Mississippi NAACP Headquarters, re Dr. King speaking tour & other topics, Lee Ball
7/25Report From Clarksdale No. 1, MS. Fraser Thomason

New Additions to Our Stories

Wyatt Tee WalkerInterview by David Cline re SCLC & the movement, 2014.
PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata
Luis ZapataInterview by Emilye Crosby, re SNCC, COFO, MFLU & the movement, 2013.
PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata
Dorothy ZellnerInterview by Emilye Crosby re SNCC & the movement, 2015.
PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata

Affadavits of Repression, Retaliation & Violence

1964Beating of CORE Worker by Jackson police, affadavit of Richard Jewett. March 30, 1964 (HTML version)
1964Soldier insulted, hit, and jailed in Jackson, affadavit of 1st Lt. Emanuael Schriber, U.S. Army. April 1, 1964
1964Denial of the Right to Vote in Greenwood MS, affadavits of several citizens. April 1, 1964
1964John Mathews, affadavit regarding false arrest of SCLC citzenship teacher
1964Firing of Voter Registration Applicant, affadavit of Willis Wright. April 10, 1964
1964Jail Treatment of White Student in Jackson MS, affadavit of Eli Hochstedler. April 16, 1964
1964Beating of Negro Voter Registration Worker in Southwest MS, affadavit of Archie Curtis. April 23, 1964

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Jimmy Rogers, SNCC

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry
The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

No new poems added this month.

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

Freedom Movement Art

Resources & Other

Updated & Expanded: Database of CRM-Related Document & Oral-History Archived and Repositories

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

Recent Books, Films, & Videos by Freedom Movement Veterans


Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

My Race to Freedom: A Life in the Civil Rights Movement, by Gwendolyn (Gwen) Patton. NewSouth Books, 2020. Autobiography & Movement memoir by a long-term stalwart of the Freedom Movement — Montgomery Bus Boycott & Montgomery Improvement Association, student sit-ins, Freedom Rides, student activism at Tuskegee, voter-registration and rural organizing, Selma and the March to Montgomery.

Year Forever in my Veins, by Faith Holsaert. Backbone Press, 2020. Chapbook of poems growing out of letters home to mother and sister during year working with SNCC in Southwest Georgia.

Our Sixties, by Freedom Movement veteran Paul Lauter. University of Rochester Press, 2020. Examination of the values, exploits, victories, implications, and failings, of the "Movement" in the 1960s. Includes chapters about Freedom Summer of 1964, Natchez in the summer of 1965, and a community school in DC, 1966.

Mississippi & After: A Life in Equal Justice Law, by Gil Venable (1942-2019), One Monkey Books, 2020. Memoir of a law student assisting the Lawyers Committee for Civil Rights Under Law in Jackson, MS.

Voices from the Mississippi Hill Country ~ The Benton County Civil Rights Movement, by Roy DeBerry, Aviva Futorian, Stephen Klein, and John Lyons. University Press of Mississippi, 2020. History of the Benton movement and personal narratives of local Freedom Movement participants.

A Small Town Rises: A Sharecropper and a College Girl Join the Struggle for Justice in Shaw, Mississippi, by Lee Anna Sherman with Movement veterans Eddie Short and recent college grad Mary Sue Gellatly. Bog Lily Press, 2020. Chronicles the lives of two civil rights activists who met in the tiny cotton-town of Shaw during Freedom Summer and joined forces with local black activist Andrew Hawkins and a host of courageous townspeople to challenge and disrupt the status quo in the heart of the Mississippi Delta.

Tip of the Arrow: the Selma Student Nonviolent Movement, a Study in Leadership, by Charles Bonner. Page Publishing, 2020. An "up-from-below" and "inside-out" examination of, and personal narratives by, the young students of Selma Alabama who from 1963 to 1965 were the tip of the nonviolent arrow in the fight for freedom and equality. Charles Bonner, the author, was one of the main student leaders and then a SNCC field secretary. Today he is one of the boldest civil rights attorneys in California.

Race Man: Selected Works, 1960-2015, by Julian Bond. City Lights Publishers; 2020).

"Troublemaker" Memories of the Freedom Movement, by Bruce Hartford. Westwind Writers, 2019. Personal boots-on-the-ground memoir of four years service in the American Civil Rights Movement, 1963-1967.

Southern White Girl Seeks Social Change: A Twentieth Century Memoir, by Nancy Stoller. Bright Stuff, 2019. A memoir from the dawn of SNCC, women's liberation, and young people who "de-segregated" the US, each body on the line, every eye on the prize.

Acts of Resistance: A Freedom Rider Looks Back on the Civil Rights Movement, by Judith Frieze Wright. Apple Bay Publishing, 2019. A memoir of one person's experience in Mississippi during the early sixties.

Mississippi Reckoning, (novel) by Mitchell Zimmerman. Amazon/Kindle Direct Publishing 2019. The story of a despairing man's pursuit of justice for the victims of segregationist brutality, set against a sweeping backdrop of white supremacy rampant and the civil rights struggles of the 1940s and 1960s.


Son of the South a film based on Bob Zellner's autobiography, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek. The story of how a White Southerner, from a KKK background made the decision to join the Civil Rights Movement as the first white field secretary for SNCC.

SNCC (Trailer). A 2020 film by SNCC photographer Danny Lyon that brings together never seen made during the years he was employed as the staff photographer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The images are layered with archival audio recordings of speeches by, and conversations with, John Lewis, Julian Bond, Dotty Zellner, among others, as well as freedom songs that were recorded by Alan Ribback in churches and meetings in Atlanta in the 1960s and recently rediscovered.

1967 NBC News Interview with Martin Luther King, that was never broadcast and not made available until 2018. (27 minutes.)

Traveling With Dr. King, by Sunnylands & Gandhi-King Institute for Nonviolence. 2019. Video remembrance by people who knew and worked closely with Dr. King.

Iowans Return to Freedom Summer, by Keeping History Alive foundation. 2018. Firsthand accounts from six Freedom Summer volunteers from Iowa who reflect on their motivations, fears, triumphs and the life altering events that took place 50 years ago.

Heather Booth: Changing the World, a documentary film by Lily Rivlin. 2017. How the Civil Rights Movement inspired SNCC activist and Freedom Summer volunteer Heather Booth to a lifetime of fighting for social justice.

Stand for Freedom: The Life & Times of Willie B. Wazir Peacock The story of Willie Peacock, one of the original SNCC field secretaries organzing in the Mississippi Delta. YouTube.

They Say I'm Your Teacher, nine minute video by Lucy Phenix about the Citizenship Schools (exerpted from the film You Got to Move: Stories of Change in the South.)

As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them to

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