Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

October 1st, 2021

According to Google, 17,130 people visited the CRMA website during September for an average of 571 per day. This roughly represents a 25% decline from September of last year. Roughly 18% of our visitors came from outside the U.S.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Missing Pages & Images? 404 Errors?
Our website has now become so large (over 7900 items and images) that it's difficult for us to keep track. And sometimes, for some unknown reason, an image or a page disappears from the server (we're trying to figure out why). So we need your help. If you see an empty box on a page where an image should be, or you click on a link and get some kind of "Page Not Found error, please send an email to alerting us to the problem. Thanks for your help.

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner.

Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


SNCC 60th Anniversary Conference. Organizing Our Strength for Tomorrow: A Call to Gather on SNCC's 60th Anniversary
. A virtual online gathering, October 14-16, 2021

Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. See Submissions details.

New Movement Documents

1964?Memo to volunteers re financial support from the north, Betty Garman, SNCC. Undated (possibly latter part of 1964 or early 1965)
1964Calendar of the Congressional Challenge, Unsigned, MFDP. Undated (probably Nov or Dec 1964)
64 66Note about where to send funds, Bruce Maxwell, COFO. Undated (probably 1964-66)
64 66CORE Task Force reference recommendation, David Dennis, CORE. Undated (probably 1964-66)
64 66Clergy & laity who signed statement on right to dissent, unsigned. Undated (probably 1964-66)
1964We'll Take Our Stand (statement by students from predominantly-white southern colleges and communities), unsigned SSOC. Nashville, April 4 1964
1964Instructions for the Freedom Vote and Regular Election, Lawrence Guyot, MFDP. October 1964
1965Letter to Alicia Kaplow re ongoing business, Betty Garmon, SNCC. January 5, 1965
65? 66?We're Broke! handwritten note to Alicia Kaplow from Betty Garman, SNCC. Undated (probably 1965 or '66)
1965Draft speech about media failures to accurately report about the Vietnam War and U.S. foreign policy, Unsigned, SNCC. Undated (apparently winter 1965)

WATS Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC July 7, 1964
SNCC July 7, 1964
SNCC July 7, (Arkansas) 1964
SNCC July 7, (Itta Bena MS) 1964
SNCC July 7, (Laurel MS) 1964
SNCC July 7, (Moss Point) 1964
SNCC July 7, (Selma AL) 1964

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

8/28/64?FoSWisconsin Friends of SNCC Report, Gretchen. Undated (presumed August 28, 1964 or possibly 1965)
11/3/64COREL.A. CORE Active Membership Bulletin
11/9/64N-VAC Statement to L.A. City Council re proposed Human Relations Bureau
11/16/64 UCB COREMemo to other CORE chapters, Bryson Collins, U.C. Berkeley CORE
12/1/64COREL.A. CORE Organizing Calendar

New Letters & Reports From the Field

11/63Theresa, FoSNote about Freedom Ballot (handwritten). Undated (probably Nov 1963)
1964Jimmie Jones, SNCCNote requesting supplies (handwritten). Undated (probably 1964)
1964Carl ScovelEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project
1964Richard SiglerEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project
1964J. Raymond SikkelEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project
1964Harold B. SmithEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project
1964Jeff SmithEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project
1964Miss Sally A. SmithEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project
1964Mrs. S.N. Vilma ThompkinsEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project
1964Frank Norman TottenEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project
1964Don Van VoorhisEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project
8/01/64Jean Little (vol)Note to Theresa re Freedom Singer event in Green Bay WI (handwritten)
8/17/64Jean Little (vol)Follow up note re Freedom Singer event in Green Bay WI
8/19/64Joel Skornicka, UWResponse to Green Bay Freedom Singers requests,
1964?Joanne Ooiman, CORENote about volunteer whose parents prevent from returning, Undated (probably 1964, possibly 1965)
1/10/65Idell Croft, SNCCLetter to Alicia Kaplow with updates (handwritten)
1/12/65Karen Koonan, SNCCNote re receipt of funds
1/12/65Lee [Illegible], Aberdeen MSThank you note for financial support (handwritten)
1/18/65Idell Craft, SNCCNote re stolen money orders (handwritten)
1/21/65Bob Abts, FoSNote re organizing against South African Apartheid (handwritten)
1/21/65Charles Horwitz, COFOLetter to Alcia Kaplow re his COFO work
1/22/65Charles Hartfield, Laurel MSNote to Alicia Kaplow re sponsorship checks
1/26/65Idell Croft, SNCCUnemployed for working with The Movement (handwritten)
1/31/65Barbara Jones, SNCCNote re sponsorship of Linda Seese (Spes Dolphin)
64 66Phil LapsanskyNote about Dave Dogget, Undated (probably 1964-66)
64? 65?LindaLetter to Alicia Kaplow re a day in Mississippi. Undated (probably 1964 or '65)
64–66?Bob AbtPersonal note to Alicia Kaplow, re arrival in Los Angeles. Undated (probably 1964-1966)
1/65Linda Seese
Letter to Alicia Kaplow, re funding and Unitarian Society communications. Undated (probablly Jan or Feb 1965)
1/08/65John Wilkins, SNCCReturn of stipend check
6/24/66Alicia Kaplow, FoSInformation request about former SNCC staff
8/03/66Ernest Powers, SNCCNote to Alicia Kaplow re desperate need of financial help (handwritten) (Senatoba MS)
10/26/66Unsigned, SNCCNote to Alicia Kaplow re desperate need for funds (West Point MS)
1/07/67Dora & Joe AdamsNote to Alicia Kaplow re appreciation of support (West Point MS),

New Additions to Our Stories

Ollie M. SmithInterview (St. Augustine, FL)

New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

1964Notes From Mississippi Jerry DeMuth, The Independent. October 1964
1964Notes From Mississippi, Jerry DeMuth, The Independent. November 1964
1966A Confirmed Segregationist Judge (re court ruling against Voting Rights Act), Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. March 1, 1966
1966Justice Department Ignores Vote Law (re reluctance to enforce Voting Rights Act), Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. May 23, 1966
1968Two contending articles about SNCC-Black Panther Party breakup Julius Lester & Robert Allen, Guardian. August 1968

New Additions to Our Thoughts

Freedom in the Air program & study guideJulian Bond, C.T. Vivian, Media Works. Undated (probably in the 2000s)
The Rolling of the Busses (March on Washington)Bruce Hartford

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Thomas E. Canterbury
Tamio Wakayama

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry
The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

Peggy Trotter Dammond Preacely: The Vote

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

Freedom Movement Art

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

New Links Added to Film, Videos & Audio

What We Learned from "Betita", 58-minute Tribute to Elizabeth "Betita Martinez Part 3. Margo Okazawa-Rey, KPFA Host.
Bernice Johnson Reagon, 44-minute interview conducted for Eyes on the Prize re Albany Movement, by Blackside, 1986.
Maria Varela, Time to Get Ready, 70-minute lecture. Univeristy of Georgia, 2020.
How Maria Varela Became One Of The "Eyes" Of 1960s Black Student Activism, 13-minute radio interview. 2020.
A.J. Muste: Radical for Peace, two films by David B. Schock, penULTIMATE. Documentaries about peace and civil rights activist A.J. Muste. 2019 & 2020.

RECENT BOOKS by Movement Veterans:

Run: Book One, by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin. Sequel to the March triology. "First you march, then you run." Graphic-novel format memoir by John Lewis recounting the Freedom Movement after passage of the Voting Rights Act — including the pushback of those who resist social change and refuse to accept racial equality and justice, and the continuing struggles of those who believe change has not gone far enough.

Buses Are a Comin': Memoir of a Freedom Rider, by Charles Person. Gripping personal narrative by the youngest of the original 13 Freedom Rider who endured the racist violence in Alabama.

It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. 2021. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

My Race to Freedom: A Life in the Civil Rights Movement, by Gwendolyn (Gwen) Patton. NewSouth Books, 2020. Autobiography & Movement memoir by a long-term stalwart of the Freedom Movement — Montgomery Bus Boycott & Montgomery Improvement Association, student sit-ins, Freedom Rides, student activism at Tuskegee, voter-registration and rural organizing, Selma and the March to Montgomery.

Year Forever in my Veins, by Faith Holsaert. Backbone Press, 2020. Chapbook of poems growing out of letters home to mother and sister during year working with SNCC in Southwest Georgia.

Our Sixties, by Freedom Movement veteran Paul Lauter. University of Rochester Press, 2020. Examination of the values, exploits, victories, implications, and failings, of the "Movement" in the 1960s. Includes chapters about Freedom Summer of 1964, Natchez in the summer of 1965, and a community school in DC, 1966.

Voices from the Mississippi Hill Country ~ The Benton County Civil Rights Movement, by Roy DeBerry, Aviva Futorian, Stephen Klein, and John Lyons. University Press of Mississippi, 2020. History of the Benton movement and personal narratives of local Freedom Movement participants.

A Small Town Rises: A Sharecropper and a College Girl Join the Struggle for Justice in Shaw, Mississippi, by Lee Anna Sherman with Movement veterans Eddie Short and recent college grad Mary Sue Gellatly. Bog Lily Press, 2020. Chronicles the lives of two civil rights activists who met in the tiny cotton-town of Shaw during Freedom Summer and joined forces with local black activist Andrew Hawkins and a host of courageous townspeople to challenge and disrupt the status quo in the heart of the Mississippi Delta.

Tip of the Arrow: the Selma Student Nonviolent Movement, a Study in Leadership, by Charles Bonner. Page Publishing, 2020. An "up-from-below" and "inside-out" examination of, and personal narratives by, the young students of Selma Alabama who from 1963 to 1965 were the tip of the nonviolent arrow in the fight for freedom and equality. Charles Bonner, the author, was one of the main student leaders and then a SNCC field secretary. Today he is one of the boldest civil rights attorneys in California.

Race Man: Selected Works, 1960-2015, by Julian Bond. City Lights Publishers; 2020).

RECENT FILMS & VIDEOS By or About Movement Veterans:

Son of the South a film based on Bob Zellner's autobiography, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek. 2021. The story of how a White Southerner, from a KKK background made the decision to join the Civil Rights Movement as the first white field secretary for SNCC.

SNCC (Trailer). A 2020 film by SNCC photographer Danny Lyon that brings together never seen made during the years he was employed as the staff photographer for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee. The images are layered with archival audio recordings of speeches by, and conversations with, John Lewis, Julian Bond, Dotty Zellner, among others, as well as freedom songs that were recorded by Alan Ribback in churches and meetings in Atlanta in the 1960s and recently rediscovered.

As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them to

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