Civil Rights Movement Archive

What's New & Announcements
April 1st, 2020

According to Google, 22,060 people visited the website during March for an average of 711 per day. That's a 25% drop from the 954 per day who came to our site in March of 2019 — most of that decline is no doubt due to pandemic-related school closures. Yet the decline is less that we expected, which probably reflects an increase in home-schooling and remote-learning. Roughly 16% of our visitors came from outside the U.S.

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner.

Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established this CRMVet website in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMVet site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.

Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project. Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

The SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.

Special Appeal to Freedom Movement Veterans

Sometimes it feels to us as if the mass media and our education system want to shrink the Civil Rights Movement down to a single narrative, a sole interpretation, and a limited number of famous actors. But our movement was broad and diverse, encompassing a wide range of viewpoints, conclusions, strategies, and tactics — and a significant amount of debate and argument.

Most of those using our site are students. Our Frequently Asked Questions section where activists provide their answers to the queries that students most often ask is one of the key "go-to" resources for students completing their homework assignments. Last year it was the second-most visited section (Poems was the first). We want students who come here to encounter the full range of a peoples mass movement with all of its variety and contention.

Unfortunately, however, the FAQ section hasn't been updated or expanded in years. So if you're an activist listed on our Roll Call of Freedom Movement Veterans and are looking for something productive to do while "sheltering in place," please consider adding your answers to the commonly asked questions. To add your thoughts to a Frequently Asked Question just email a 1-4 paragraph answer to us at (be sure to indicate which question you're addressing). Thanks.


SNCC 60th: Organizing Our Strength for Tomorrow has been postponed until first week of June 2021

Photo Exhibit: This Light of Ours, Activist Photographers of the Civil Rights Movement
Photographs by Matt Herron
San Francisco Main Library, Koret Auditorium
February 15 — May 10, 2020

Photo Exhibit: This Light of Ours
150 images from 8 photographers including SNCC Staff photogs, Tamiyo Wakayama, Bob Fletcher, Herb Randall and Maria Varela.
Bullock Museum, Austin Texas.
February 15 — May 31, 2020

Movement art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to send us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968.

New Movement Documents

58? 59?A Canvasser's Needs, Unsigned, SCLC. Undated (possibly 1958 or '59)
58? 59?How to Get a Coordinated Progam Started in Your City or County (political action), Unsigned, NAACP? SCLC? Undated (possibly 1958 or '59)
62? 63?Negro Student Vote Workers Arrested, Sunflower Co. MS. Unsigned, SNCC? COFO? Undated (probably 1962 or 1963)
1962The Turning Point in Freedom Road: the Fight to End Jim Crow Now, Claude Lightfoot, CPUSA. 32-page pamphlet.
62? 63?A Program for a State-Wide Voter Registration Campaign in Mississippi, Aaron Henry, Carsie Hall, COFO. Undated (probably 1962-1964)
62? 63?Proposal for the Mississippi Delta Voter Registration Project, Unsigned SNCC or COFO. Undated (probably 1962-1964)
62? 63?Mississippi Qualifications of Registered Voters, Unsigned, SNCC? COFO? VEP? Undated (possibly 1962 or 1963)
1963?Registration Report to the Voter Education Project, Unsigned, VEP. Undated (probably 1963)
63? 64?Dear Fellow Citizens, appeal to Warren Co. MS Afro-Americans, Rev. R.L.T. Smith, COFO. Undated (probably 1962-1964)
1964Statement from Ruleville Teenagers, re Inequalities and Problems in Mississippi and in school, 1964
64? 65?Essentials of Voter Registration, Unsigned, Democratic Party National Committee (DNC). Undated (probably 1964 or 1965)
66? 67?Memo re: Unfinished business, Bob Beech, Delta Ministry. Undated (probably 1966 or 1967)
1965Political Action on the Community Level: Part 1, Unsigned, CORE. 1965
1965CORE: Survey of Project Needs, Unsigned. 1965
1965Southern CORE Staff and Locations, Unsigned, CORE. 1965
1965Staff Training memo, CORE Department of Organization and National Action.
1965Memo re Teargas or Lacrimators, Unsigned, MCHR. 1965
1965Summary: Fair Employment Practices Act, NAACP Inc Fund, 1965
1965The Proposed 1965 Voting Rights Bill, unsigned CORE. March, 1965
1965Summary of Incidents in Mississippi, May 1-9, 1965, Unsigned COFO or SNCC
1965Californians for the Congressional Challenge, May 1965
1965Washington DC Summer Action Project, Mary King & Dennis Sweeny. June, 1965
1965Letter regarding Southwide Voter Education Internship Workshop, C. Conrad Browne. HREC. June 5, 1965
1967Memo re: upcoming MFDP Executive Committee meetings, Lawrence Guyot, MFDP. April 5, 1967
1969SNCC fund appeal, Phil Hutchings, SNCC. February 19, 1969
U.S. Civil Rights Commission Reports:
1961The New Orleans School Crisis, 1961
1961Education, 1961
1962Civil Rights USA/Public Schools, Cities in the North and West, 1962
1962Civil Rights USA/Public Schools of Southern States,, 1962
1963Staff Report: Public Education, December 1963
1964Staff Report: Public Education, October 1964

Mississippi Free Press issues:
August 3, 1963, Protest against second class citizenship, Freedom buses head to Washington
August 10, 1963, 733 Vote for Freedom, 81 held in Clarksdaly jail, March on Washington demands jobs & equality
August 17, 1963, CR Group Charges Police With Brutality, Open Voter Books Set Trials for 304 (Jackson)
August 24, 1963, Ole Miss Graduates Meredith, Negroes to File Freedom Votes, Washington March Gains Support
August 31, 1963, Negroes Mount Massive Protest, Education in Mississippi, Tougaloo Plays Role in Fight For Rights

Stanford University Mississippi Freedom Project (1964-1965)
1965Memo re: SNCC benefit in San Francisco, Ron Kaufman, MFP-SU. 1965
1965San Francisco 5th anniversary of SNCC celebration, Unsigned, MFP-SU. January 31, 1965
1965Memo re: Visit of Montgomery AL., white lawyer Clifford Durr, John Rosenberg, MFP-SU. February, 1965
1965Research on Natchez, MS. corporations, Unsigned, MFP-SU. February, 1965

Los Angeles CA Protests, 1963-1964
1964N-VACNon-Violent Action Committee stationary, undated 1964
1964N-VACN-VAC Membership Application, Non-Violent Action Committee. Undated 1964
1964COREBruin CORE flyer picket line violence & Republican convention. Unsigned, undated (possibly spring of 1964)
1964?Ad HocThe Ad Hoc Committee to End Discrimination Needs Your Help, fund appeal flyer. Undated (probably fall 1964)
1964N-VAC Nonviolent training session notes #1, (handwritten), undated 1964
1964N-VAC Nonviolent training session notes #2, undated 1964
1964N-VAC Nonviolent training session notes #3, undated 1964
1964N-VAC Nonviolent training session notes #4 (annotated during session), undated 1964
1964N-VAC Nonviolent training session script (handwritten), undated 1964

New Letters & Reports From the Field

6/9/65UnsignedLetter from Adams County jail (MS)
1964Carl Young, COFO (Holly Springs)Holly Springs Freedom School newspaper copies (MS)
1964Greenvile COFO officeMedical Situation in Issaquena County
1964Unsigned COFO (Biloxi)Biloxi incident report to Howard Kirshenbaum (MS)
1964Unsigned, COFO (Greenville)Greenville activities update (MS)
1964Unsigned, COFO (Greenville)Urban Places in Washington County (MS)
1964Unsigned, COFO (Greenwood)Greenwood Police Activity (MS)

New Additions to Our Stories

Dave DennisOral-history interview, by John Dittmer, 1983
Barney FrankInterview re Freedom Summer (MS), by Joe Sinsheimer, 1983
Greene familyInterview re Greenwood MS, by Clayborne Carson, 1978
Marion KwanThey Hadn't Counted On Me Comin' (MS)
McComb MS activistsGroup Interview, by Joe Sinsheimer, 1983

Affadavits of Repression, Retaliation & Violence
1964Statement from Earline King, re School staff misconduct, 1964
1964Statement from Irene Johnson, re School staff misconduct and slavery, 1964
1964Affadavit of Juanita Brownlow, re Threats to civil rights supporters, 7/07/64
1964Affadavit of Louis Day, re Officer pursuing 'white trash' civil rights workers, 7/07/64

New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

No new articles added this month

New Additions to Our Thoughts

No new commentaries added this month.

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

No new memories or tributes added this month

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions:

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry
The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

May Your Hands Always be Busy, Strider "Arkansas" Benston

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

March on Washington
Poor Peoples Campaign & I Am a Man
Freedom Movement Postage Stamps

New Books, Films, & Videos by Freedom Movement Veterans


"Troublemaker" Memories of the Freedom Movement, by Bruce Hartford. Westwind Writers, 2019. Personal boots-on-the-ground memoir of four years service in the American Civil Rights Movement, 1963-1967.

Southern White Girl Seeks Social Change: A Twentieth Century Memoir, by Nancy Stoller. Bright Stuff, 2019. A memoir from the dawn of SNCC, women's liberation, and young people who "de-segregated" the US, each body on the line, every eye on the prize.

Acts of Resistance: A Freedom Rider Looks Back on the Civil Rights Movement, by Judith Frieze Wright. Apple Bay Publishing, 2019. A memoir of one person's experience in Mississippi during the early sixties.

Mississippi Reckoning, (novel) by Mitchell Zimmerman. Amazon/Kindle Direct Publishing 2019. The story of a despairing man's pursuit of justice for the victims of segregationist brutality, set against a sweeping backdrop of white supremacy rampant and the civil rights struggles of the 1940s and 1960s.

Crusader Without Violence: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr, by L.D. Reddick and Derryn Moten. Reissued by New South Books, 2018. First biography of Dr. King originally written in 1959 and now reissued.

Mississippi's Exiled Daughter, by Brenda Travis with John Obee. Story of Brenda Travis, whose 1961 arrest as a teenager helped galvanize opposition to racial discrimination in Mississippi. New South Books, June 2018.

The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement and the Kennedy Administration, 1960-1964: A History in Documents, by James P. Marshall. Louisiana State University Press, 2018. Freedom Movement veteran traces through government documents the Kennedy Administration's response to the Mississippi Movement.

Hope's Kids: A Voting Rights Summer, by Alan Venable. One Monkey Books, 2017. Describes Brandeis University's 1965 SCLC-SCOPE project in South Carolina.

Operation Breadbasket: An Untold Story of Civil Rights in Chicago, 1966- 1971, by Martin L. Deppe. University of Georgia Press, 2017. Untold Story, of the unheralded leaders of thel SCLC program based in Chicago that broke a market stranglehold by white businesses in Black communities and empowered Black businesses in their own neighborhoods and beyond.

1967 NBC News Interview with Martin Luther King, that was never broadcast and not made available until 2018. (27 minutes.)

Traveling With Dr. King, by Sunnylands & Gandhi-King Institute for Nonviolence. 2019. Video remembrance by people who knew and worked closely with Dr. King.

Iowans Return to Freedom Summer, by Keeping History Alive foundation. 2018. Firsthand accounts from six Freedom Summer volunteers from Iowa who reflect on their motivations, fears, triumphs and the life altering events that took place 50 years ago.

Heather Booth: Changing the World, a documentary film by Lily Rivlin. 2017. How the Civil Rights Movement inspired SNCC activist and Freedom Summer volunteer Heather Booth to a lifetime of fighting for social justice.

Stand for Freedom: The Life & Times of Willie B. Wazir Peacock The story of Willie Peacock, one of the original SNCC field secretaries organzing in the Mississippi Delta. YouTube.

Web Links, Bibliography and Movement Archives updated, revised, & expanded.

As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them to

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