Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

January 1st, 2022

IMPORTANT NOTE: Missing Pages & Images? 404 Errors?
If you encounter an empty box on a page where an image should be, or if you click on a link and get some kind of "Page Not Found error, please send an email to alerting us to the problem. Thanks for your help.

According to Google, 17,567 people visited the CRMA website during December for an average of 567 per day. This is roughly 7% less than December of last year when almost all schools were on remote-learning due to the pandemic. Roughly 16% of our visitors came from outside the U.S.

67 new items — photos, documents, stories, articles, commentaries, discussions, and other resources were added to the CRMA website in December. Our site now provides over 8000 pages and 5000 searchable URLs (excluding photos and images).

Our top-five, most visited pages in December were:

  1. Are You "Qualified" to Vote? — Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
  2. The Other America, Dr. Martin Luther King. (1967)
  3. What were the failures of the Civil Rights Movement? (FAQ)
  4. Poems of the Civil Rights Movement
  5. Civil Rights Movement History: 1960


Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. Tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project . Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.


Kidney donor needed! Dr. Shirley Green-Reese is a civil rights activist and pioneer and one of the fourteen 1963 Leesburg Stockade Girls who were held in a stockade building in Lee County, Georgia for 60 days during the Movement in Americus, Georgia. She is aggressively advertising for a kidney donor. Click here for more information.

Now Available: FREEDOM RIDERS: The Civil Rights Musical audio recording in MP3 format, by Richard Allen and Taran Gray is now out on Broadway Records and New York Theater Barn Records.

Now Available: Memoirs Of A Revolution Experience Through Poetry And Poems, by Lulu Westbrook Griffin. Page Publishing Co, 2022. The personal story of a young activist in Southwest Georgia during the height of 1960s Freedom Movement who was held for 45 days in the infamous Leesburg stockade.

Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968. See Submissions details.

*** 2021 Annual Report ***

New Movement Documents

1964Newsletter exchange with FoS, Unsigned SCEF, November 14, 1964
1964Gift subscription to FoS of Southern Patriot, James Dombrowski, , SCEF. November 16, 1964
1965Formal objection to the seating of white congressmen from Mississippi re the Congressional Challenge. Ryan and Roosevelt, Congressional Record
1965Old age assistance denied Bolivar Co. MS Department of Welfare. January 8, 1965
1965Mississippi electoral calendar, 1965-1968, Unsigned, MFDP
1965Rebuttal to claim that MFDP Congressional Challenge hearings are illegal, Lawrence Guyot, MFDP. Undated (probably March 1965)
1965Congressional Challenge Testimony, Victoria Gray, MFDP. March 25, 1965
1965Congressional Challenge Progress Report, Unsigned, MFDP. March 25, 1965
1966Emergency Bulletin #1 SNCC Opposition to the War in Vietnam, Press Response, and Julian Bond and Bulletin #2 Murder of Samuel Young and the Tuskegee Situation. Unsigned, SNCC. 1/8/66
1967George Wallace research report, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. 1967

Personnel Files

1964?Karl MorganPersonnel Report, CORE. Undated (probably 1964-1965)
1964?Sandra Kay WattsPersonnel Report, CORE. Undated (probably 1964-1965)

Summer Volunteer Parents-Related Documents

1964Bail Fund Information, Richard Wilson and Evelyn Carstens. Parents. Undated July 1964
1964Statement: Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee (Los Angeles), unsigned PMEC. July 1964
1964Report re Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee (L.A.) report, Dorothy Hunn, PMEC. July 2, 1964
1964Newsletter No. 1, Parents Mississippi Emergency Committee (L.A.). July 3, 1964
1964Meet the Mississippi Freedom Project Summer Volunteers flyer, unsigned PMEC (L.A.). 9/2/64
1965Letter to parents of Mississippi volunteers opposing nomination of James Colman to the federal court, Harold Light, Parents Mississippi Association (NorCal). June 23rd, 1965

WATS Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC July 8, 1964
SNCC July 8, 1964
SNCC July 9, 1964
SNCC July 10, 1964
SNCC July 10, 1964
SNCC July 11, 1964

Press Releases

3/27/67SNCCU.S. Supreme Court redistricting case is "smart racism," Jerry DeMuth

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

1963FoSHoadley's Test Case in Indiana, by Jay Neugeboren (New Republic) reprinted by Friends of SNCC(?). Undated 1963
63? 64?FoSFriends of SNCC Constitution and By-Laws, Madison WI. Undated (probably 1963 or 1964)
1963?FoSCommittee to Abolish HUAC, memo/plan by Friends of SNCC (FoS). Undated (possibly fall of 1963)
11/18/64FoSMemo to FoS from Dominican Sisters, re film and volunteers
12/64OACCRCarpenters for Christmas: We Need Your Help, appeal for funds and assistance rebuilding bombed churches in Mississippi. Marcia Aronoff, Oberlin Action Committee for Civil Rights
2/1/65FoSMemo re Congressional Challenge petition drive, Dottie Zellner, Joan Reischauer, MA FoS
3/4/65FoSOff-campus speaker permission registration forms for: Rev. James Bevel, Jim Collier, and Pete Seeger. Madison FoS.
1965FoSTo the Justice Department and U.S. Congress, sign-on letter demanding civil rights enforcement in Alabama. Madison FoS. Undated (probably Spring 1965).

New Letters & Reports From the Field

2/22/64Andrew Green CORE/COFOReport of Andrew Lee Green on Camden, (Madison Co. MS)
4/25/64Unsigned COREFood & clothing report, (Madison Co. MS)
4/28/64Unsigned CORE/COFOCanton Project Report 2/28 - 4/28, (Madison Co. MS)
8/64Unsigned, COFO (Biloxi)Biloxi Report, undated (probably August '64) (MS)
8/64Unsigned, COFO (Canton)List of Arrests in Canton MS July 21-Aug 12
8/64Robert P. Watkins, COFO (Canton)Law Student's Report, Canton MS
8/64Unsigned, COFO (Columbus)A freedom worker's description of venturing into downtown Columbus MS
8/64Unsigned, COFOValley View MS Report

New Ministers Project Evaluation Forms From Hattiesburg

1964Walter Ransom Rice Jr.Evaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project, undated 1964
1964Mary Ellen la RueEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project, undated 1964
1964Paul RutgersEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project, undated 1964
1964C. Thatcher SchwartzEvaluation form, Hattiesburg Ministers Project, undated 1964

New Additions to Our Stories

James ArmstrongInterview by Kimberly Hill re school integration and the movement in Birmingham AL, 1963-1965  PDF transcriptAudio + bio metadata
Wille BlueInterview by Max Krochmal re SNCC and the movement in MS.  PDF transcriptAudio + bio metadata
Penny PatchInterview by David Kline re SNCC in GA & MS. 1963-1965  PDF transcriptAudio + bio metadata
Sue ThrasherInterview by Jessie Wilkerson re SSOC and activism  PDF transcriptAudio + bio metadata
Rick TuttleInterview by David Cline re SNCC and the movement in GA & MS  PDF transcriptAudio + bio metadata

Affidavits of Repression, Retaliation & Violence

1964Affidavit of Knights, Arsdale, Ellis, and Hall, re voting registration test failed due to error on forms, 8/1964. Clarksdale.
1964Statment of COFO activists, re obstacles in obtaining mass meeting permit, 8/03/64. Pascagoula.
1964Affidavit of Rueben Brown, re arrest of COFO workers by police, 8/05/64. Ocean Springs
1964Affidavit of Laurice Walker, re rejection of voter application, 8/10/64. Clarksdale
1964Affidavit of Hattie Mae Williams, re voter registration refusal, 8/11/64. Clarksdale
1964Three affidavits from people fired for trying to register to vote, July & August. Sunflower Co.
1964Affidavit of Russell Allen, re harrassment, threats, and violence against voter registration worker, 8/15/64. Greenville
1964Affidavit Alan Verson, re police harrassment in Ocean Springs. 8/31/64

New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

1965Notes From Mississippi, Jerry DeMuth, The Independent. March, 1965

New Additions to Our Thoughts

SCLC & Me (Taliaferro Co. GA movement)Terry V. Howard

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Gordon Carey
Dr. Bamba Ra (Morris Ruffin)

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry

The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

No new poems added this month.

New Resource Pages

Freedom Rides and Freedom Riders Resources

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

The Sit-Ins — Off Campus and Into Movement
In the Circle of Trust

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

New Links Added to Film, Videos & Audio

Earest Swann Interview, by Carole Merritt (SOHP). Re integrating a white high school in Atlanta. 57 min, 2006.
James Armstrong Interview, by Kimberly Hill (SOHP). Re school integration and the movement in Birmingham AL 17 min, 2004.
Wille Blue Interview, by Interview by Max Krochmal (SOHP). Re SNCC and the movement in MS. 40 min, 2010.
Penny Patch Interview, David Kline (SOHP). Re SNCC in GA & MS. 1963-1965. 58 min, 2010.
Sue Thrasher Interview, by Jessie Wilkerson (SOHP). Re SSOC and activism. 56 min, 2010.
Rick Tuttle Interview, by David Cline (SOHP). Re SNCC and the movement in GA & MS 32 min, 2010.

RECENT BOOKS by Movement Veterans:

Memoirs Of A Revolution Experience Through Poetry And Poems, by Lulu Westbrook Griffin. Page Publishing Co, 2022. The personal story of a young activist in Southwest Georgia during the height of 1960s Freedom Movement who was held for 45 days in the infamous Leesburg stockade.

Freedom Is a Constant Struggle: An Anthology of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (New Reprint). By Susan Erenrich (ed). New South Books, 2021. Large compilation of valuable original source material on Civil Rights Movement.

Run: Book One, by John Lewis and Andrew Aydin. Sequel to the March triology. "First you march, then you run." Graphic-novel format memoir by John Lewis recounting the Freedom Movement after passage of the Voting Rights Act — including the pushback of those who resist social change and refuse to accept racial equality and justice, and the continuing struggles of those who believe change has not gone far enough.

Buses Are a Comin': Memoir of a Freedom Rider, by Charles Person. Gripping personal narrative by the youngest of the original 13 Freedom Rider who endured the racist violence in Alabama.

It's in the Action: Memories of a Nonviolent Warrior, by C.T. Vivian with Steve Fiffer. NewSouth Books, 2021. Personal memoir and observations by one of the key central figures in the Freedom Movement. From student sit-ins to the Freedom Rides to the battles for voting rights and a fair share of political and economic power, C.T. Vivian was on the ground in the action.

Fire at the Freedom House, by Matt Rinaldi. 2021. Personal memoir of a white activist working Attala County, Mississippi, in 1966 under the organizing direction of the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) led by Lawrence Guyot and Mrs. Fannie Lou Hamer.

Julian Bond's Time to Teach: A History of the Southern Civil Rights Movement, by Julian Bond, Danny Lyon, Pamela Horowitz, & others. Beacon Press (2021). History & analysis of the Freedom Movement based on Julian's course lecture notes and his personal insights.

RECENT FILMS & VIDEOS By or About Movement Veterans:

Son of the South a film based on Bob Zellner's autobiography, The Wrong Side of Murder Creek. 2021. The story of how a White Southerner, from a KKK background made the decision to join the Civil Rights Movement as the first white field secretary for SNCC.


As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them to

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner.

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