Civil Rights Movement Archive

What's New & Announcements
June 1st, 2020

According to Google, 77,270 people visited the website during May for an average of 2492 per day. But that figure is very misleading because the street protests and urban violence sparked by the blatantly public white-supremacy of Amy Cooper and the police-lynching of George Floyd caused a huge spike in visits to our site. Prior to the protests, we were getting around 500-700 visits per day which was lower than the 1085 per day in May of last year — no doubt due to schools being closed because of the pandemic. Then:
Mon 5/25940George Floyd murdered + Amy Cooper incident
Tues 5/261529Initial mass protest in Minneapolis met with tear gas and police violence
Wed 5/271,676Protests begin erupting in other cities. Some trash fires & looting
Thurs 5/284,392Widespread protests across nation. Police violence escalates. Minneapolis police station burned. Arson & looting (mostly by non-protesters)
Fri 5/2913,128Protests & urban violence dominate the news. National Guard called out in some areas.
Sat 5/3014,029Mass protests across nation. Urban curfews. Police violence against nonviolent demonstrators. Continued arson & looting (mostly by non-protesters)
Sun 5/3114,720Mass protests in more than 100 cities & towns. Urban curfews. National Guard mobilized in 15 states. Police violence against nonviolent demonstrators. Continued arson & looting (mostly by non-protesters)

The great bulk of this spike in visitors to CRMVet comes from people accessing The Other America, Dr. King's famous condemnation of racism, poverty and injustice. There's also been a modest increase in visits to other pages on our site, but it's Dr. King's speech that is drawing so much attention.

 — Bruce Hartford, Webspinner.

Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement established this CRMVet website in late 1999, it has been funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement activists and individual supporters. We carry on this work without any institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropy contributions of any kind. So if you find our CRMVet site useful and worthy, please click here to make a donation to keep us alive and growing. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.

Please consider converting your PayPal donation to an automatic monthly contribution by checking the "Make this a monthly donation" box on the amount screen when it pops up.

Sister Sites

SNCC Digital Gateway. SNCC Legacy Project & Duke University. tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the Deep South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project. Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

The SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP was begun to preserve and extend SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and liberty.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.

Chicago SNCC History Project. Tells the Stories of Chicago Area Friends of SNCC (CAFSNCC), its relationship to SNCC, it's pivotal role in shaping the fight for freedom in Chicago between 1960-1965, and preserves that history as a legacy for the young people who are continuing the fight for freedom, justice and peace.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and The Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.

Special Appeal to Freedom Movement Veterans

Sometimes it feels to us as if the mass media and our education system want to shrink the Civil Rights Movement down to a single narrative, a sole interpretation, and a limited number of famous actors. But our movement was broad and diverse, encompassing a wide range of viewpoints, conclusions, strategies, and tactics — and a significant amount of debate and argument.

Most of those using our site are students. Our Frequently Asked Questions section where activists provide their answers to the queries that students most often ask is one of the key "go-to" resources for students completing their homework assignments. Last year it was the second-most visited section (Poems was the first). We want students who come here to encounter the full range of a peoples mass movement with all of its variety and contention.

Unfortunately, however, the FAQ section hasn't been updated or expanded in years. So if you're an activist listed on our Roll Call of Freedom Movement Veterans and are looking for something productive to do while "sheltering in place," please consider adding your answers to the commonly asked questions. To add your thoughts to a Frequently Asked Question just email a 1-4 paragraph answer to us at (be sure to indicate which question you're addressing). Thanks.


Movement art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to send us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1951-1968.

New Movement Documents

????Listen! Some Reasons Why Everyone Should Register and Vote, Unsigned (possibly from Alpha Phi Alpha fraternity). Undated.
????Two Minute Talk on Poll Tax and Voting, unsigned (VEP? SCLC?) Undated
????Three Minute Speech unsigned (VEP? SCLC?) Undated
????Registration Report Form for the Voter Education Project, date unknown
????Open Every Door flyer, Unsigned. Undated.
????Mississippi Qualifications of Registered Voters, unsigned (probably COFO). Undated (possibly 1962)
1962?A Proposal for a Statewide Voter Registration Campaign in Mississippi, Aaron Henry & Carsie Hall, COFO. Undated, probably the later half of 1962
1962?Proposal for the Mississippi Delta Voter Registration Project, unsigned. Undated, probably the later half of 1962
1962The Events Surrounding the Voter Registration Drive in Ruleville, Bob Moses, SCLC. August, 1962
62? 63?Voter Education Project Reporting Requirments of Recipient Organizations, Thaddeus Olive, Jr., SRC. Undated (possibly 1962 or 63)
62? 63?Voter Registration Program in Mississippi, Bob Moses, COFO. Undated (probably later 1962 or early '63)
1963Support Justice in Mississippi flyer re hearing for jailed Itta Bena protesters, unsigned. July 19, 1963.
1963?Bolivar County MS canvas form, unsigned, COFO. Undated (possibly 1963)
1964Organizing list, possibly from Canton MS. Handwritten. Unsigned CORE or COFO, undated
1964Student List for St. John Freedom School, Canton MS. Unsigned COFO or CORE, summer 1964
1964List of Students at Pleasant Green Freedom School, possibly Valley View or Canton, MS. Unsigned, Unsigned COFO or CORE. Undated, summer 1964
1964Volunteers update from Canton MS, Nancy Jervis?, COFO. 1964
1965Convention registration forms from SCOPE volunteers at SCLC annual convention, Birmingham AL. August 1965
????Register to Vote Now! flyer, Unsigned. Undated.
1967Poll watchers/workers expense report, Ethel Lu Gadison, location not stated, November 8, 1967
U.S. Civil Rights Commission Reports:
1959Report of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights, 1959
1962Housing in Washington, D. C., September 1962
1963Police-Minority Group Relations in California, August 1963
1965Law enforcement equal protection in the South,, November 1965
1966Equal Employment Opportunity Under Federal Law, 1966
1967A time to listen ... a time to act; ghetto voices., November 1967
1963Civil Cights Challenges in the US, September 1963

Mississippi Free Press issues:
October 19, 1963, We Will Be Free (Henry, King campaign), Civil Rights Commission vote, A New Party (editorial)
October 26, 1963, A Pulpit for Freedom, Negroes Wield Ballot Power, They Can't Even Spell (editorial on Mississippi education system)
November 2, 1963, Aaron Henry approaches election, Minister Decries Church Segregation, Political Neglect or Political Responsibility (editorial)
November 9, 1963, 90,000 Vote for Henry, Gov. Johnson Refused Consent of the Governed, Vicksburg the Sick City
November 16, 1963, Workers Reap Poverty, Cotton Laborers--Forgotten Poor, Freedom Vote Challenges State, Mississippi Learns from Controlled Textbooks (editorial)
November 23, 1963, Living Condition Inhuman, Sheriff, School Superintendent--Use, Abuse of Office
November 30, 1963, Nation Mourns Kennedy, Mississippi Education; Separate Unequal, Assasination and Climate of Violence (editorial)

Los Angeles CA Protests, 1963-1964
1964COREMore Action, Not Less Will Win!, Bruin CORE Bank of American flyer. Undated (probably May or June of '64)
1964?COREConstitutional Rights Information Form, California DoJ. Undated.
1964DuBoisA Letter From the Los Angeles Organizing Committee, recruitment flyer. W.E.B. DuBois Club. Undated (probably late summer or early fall, 1964)
1964DuBoisThe W.E.B. DuBois Clubs of America, Berkeley Branch, recruitment brochure. Undated (probably early fall, 1964)
1964COREStudy History by Living It! Volunteer for Los Angeles CORE's Freedom Summer, undated flyer (probably April or May of 1964)
1964COREFundraising questionaire for L.A. CORE members, undated 1964
1964COREFundraising Brochure, L.A. CORE,
1964COREActive member questionaire, L.A. CORE. Undated (possibly late 1963 or early 1964)
1964N-VAC Note (handwritten) from Lincoln Heights jail, Woodrow (Woody) Coleman. Undated 1964
1964N-VACHandwritten courtroom sentencing notes, Bruce Hartford N-VAC. Undated (probably late summer or early fall of 1964)
1964N-VACDon't Eat Here, Van de Kamp's boycott flyer. Bruce Hartford, N-VAC. Undated (probably April-July, 1964)
1964N-VACN-VAC Protests Van de Kamp's Racist Hiring Practices, Bruce Hartford, N-VAC. Undated (probably April-July, 1964)
1964N-VACDon't Buy at Van de Kamp's, Bruce Hartford, N-VAC. Undated (probably April-July, 1964)
1964COREFor Whom the (School) Bell Tolls, school segregation flyer. Pasadena CORE. Undated (possibly 1964)
1964CORECampus CORE Activities: Nov '63 - Nov '64, U.C. Berkeley CORE. Undated (late November or early December 1964)
1964N-VACN-VAC: Van de Kamps protest sentencing newsclip, December 1, 1964

New Letters & Reports From the Field

1964L. Foner? COFO?Freedom Registration in the City of Canton, (MS)
1964Judy Hampton, COFOReport re her secretarial experience for Mrs. Devine, Canton MS
1964Margaret Cunningham, COFOReport about phones, Canton MS
1964Unsigned COFO/CORETentative Plan for organization in Valley View, MS.
1964Prickett, Nelson, Tompkins, COFOReport on Freedom School, (MS)
1964 Mabel Metzer, MFDPReport on Freedom Democratic Party work toward Educational meetings, (MS)
1964Annie Moody, COFOReport from Canton, (MS)
1964Arlene Bock, COFOReport on Gluckstadt Freedom School threats, (MS)
1964Arlene Bock, COFOLetter to President Lyndon Johnson, (MS)

New Additions to Our Stories

Marion KwanFighting for Civil Rights in Hattiesburg, MS in 1965 (MS)
Pete SeegerInterview by Joseph Mosnier re freedom movement. 2011.
  PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata
Junius WilliamsInterview by Joseph Mosnier re SNCC & the Movement. 2011.
  PDF transcriptVideo & + bio & metadata
Carrie Lamar YoungInterview by Joseph Mosnier re SNCC & Arkansas movement. 2011.
  PDF transcriptVideo + bio & metadata

Affadavits of Repression, Retaliation & Violence
1964Affidavit of Steven Fraser, re harassed by police and whites, 7/1964 (illegible)
1964Affidavit of Elvira G., re firing of agitator, 7/1964 (illegible)
1964Statement of Witnesses, re Activities of COFO at Grand Jury hearing, 7/1964. Moss Point
1964Affidavit of Lewis Sitzer, re witnessed obstacles in registering to vote, 7/03/64. Clarksdale
1964Statement of Charles Jackson, re witnessing shooting of girl, 7/06/64. Moss Point
1964Statement of Lamar Turnipseed, re wrongful arrest after being shot at, 7/06/64. Moss Point.
1964Statement of Edward Wiggins, re wrongful arrest after being shot at, 7/06/64. Pascagoula
1964Statement by Joe E. Brown, re Arrested for having guns in car for self-protection 7/06/64

New Additions to Our Thoughts

To a Foundational Level of LiteracyBob Moses
Was Ahmaud Arbery Lynched and Why Does it Matter?  Margaret Burnham
InvitationsMaria Varela

New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

Millicent E. Brown - NAACP, SNCC, PPC, 1960-72, SC, GA, MS
Sandra Echols - AFSC, 1964, SC

New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Harriet Tanzman

New Additions to Our Discussions

The Black Freedom Movement Then and Now [Video only ]2020

New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions:

No new answers added this month.

New Additions to Poetry
The Poetry section is one of the most-visited parts of the site.

New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

Mississippi: Into the Storm
Pins of the Civil Rights Movement

New (more or less) Books, Films, & Videos by Freedom Movement Veterans


Tip of the Arrow: the Selma Student Nonviolent Movement, a Study in Leadership, by Charles Bonner. Page Publishing, 2020. An "up-from-below" and "inside-out" examination of, and personal narratives by, the young students of Selma Alabama who from 1963 to 1965 were the tip of the nonviolent arrow in the fight for freedom and equality. Charles Bonner, the author, was one of the main student leaders and then a SNCC field secretary. Today he is one of the boldest civil rights attorneys in California.

"Troublemaker" Memories of the Freedom Movement, by Bruce Hartford. Westwind Writers, 2019. Personal boots-on-the-ground memoir of four years service in the American Civil Rights Movement, 1963-1967.

Southern White Girl Seeks Social Change: A Twentieth Century Memoir, by Nancy Stoller. Bright Stuff, 2019. A memoir from the dawn of SNCC, women's liberation, and young people who "de-segregated" the US, each body on the line, every eye on the prize.

Acts of Resistance: A Freedom Rider Looks Back on the Civil Rights Movement, by Judith Frieze Wright. Apple Bay Publishing, 2019. A memoir of one person's experience in Mississippi during the early sixties.

Mississippi Reckoning, (novel) by Mitchell Zimmerman. Amazon/Kindle Direct Publishing 2019. The story of a despairing man's pursuit of justice for the victims of segregationist brutality, set against a sweeping backdrop of white supremacy rampant and the civil rights struggles of the 1940s and 1960s.

Crusader Without Violence: A Biography of Martin Luther King, Jr, by L.D. Reddick and Derryn Moten. Reissued by New South Books, 2018. First biography of Dr. King originally written in 1959 and now reissued.

Mississippi's Exiled Daughter, by Brenda Travis with John Obee. Story of Brenda Travis, whose 1961 arrest as a teenager helped galvanize opposition to racial discrimination in Mississippi. New South Books, June 2018.

The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement and the Kennedy Administration, 1960-1964: A History in Documents, by James P. Marshall. Louisiana State University Press, 2018. Freedom Movement veteran traces through government documents the Kennedy Administration's response to the Mississippi Movement.

Hope's Kids: A Voting Rights Summer, by Alan Venable. One Monkey Books, 2017. Describes Brandeis University's 1965 SCLC-SCOPE project in South Carolina.

Operation Breadbasket: An Untold Story of Civil Rights in Chicago, 1966- 1971, by Martin L. Deppe. University of Georgia Press, 2017. Untold Story, of the unheralded leaders of thel SCLC program based in Chicago that broke a market stranglehold by white businesses in Black communities and empowered Black businesses in their own neighborhoods and beyond.

1967 NBC News Interview with Martin Luther King, that was never broadcast and not made available until 2018. (27 minutes.)

Traveling With Dr. King, by Sunnylands & Gandhi-King Institute for Nonviolence. 2019. Video remembrance by people who knew and worked closely with Dr. King.

Iowans Return to Freedom Summer, by Keeping History Alive foundation. 2018. Firsthand accounts from six Freedom Summer volunteers from Iowa who reflect on their motivations, fears, triumphs and the life altering events that took place 50 years ago.

Heather Booth: Changing the World, a documentary film by Lily Rivlin. 2017. How the Civil Rights Movement inspired SNCC activist and Freedom Summer volunteer Heather Booth to a lifetime of fighting for social justice.

Stand for Freedom: The Life & Times of Willie B. Wazir Peacock The story of Willie Peacock, one of the original SNCC field secretaries organzing in the Mississippi Delta. YouTube.

Web Links, Bibliography and Movement Archives updated, revised, & expanded.

As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them to

Copyright ©
(Labor donated)