Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

May 1st, 2024

According to Google, there were 34279 visits to the CRMA website during April for an average of 1143 per day.

Ever since 2020, our traffic has been declining. Since two-thirds of our visitors are students (grade school and college) we believe that a significant portion of this decline stems from the vicious and unrelenting war being waged by Republicans and MAGAites against teachers, librarians, schools, and colleges who dare stand against racism and educate around issues of racial justice. Nevertheless, we still stand and will persevere.

Roughly 12% of our visitors came from outside the U.S. On school days, the number of visitors ranged from 1000 to 1400 per day.

As of May 1st, our online archive contains 9967 searchable pages, documents, and images, and 339 videos in our Vimeo video channel. Google reports that out on the global internet there are 18,426 backlinks to our CRMA site, sections, and pages by organizations and people using us as an information resource.


Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since we established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in 1999, it has been almost entirely funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement veterans and individual supporters. We carry on this work with almost zero institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropic contributions. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click donate to keep us alive and growing. You can donate via check, your bank's Bill Pay service, or PayPal. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP preserves and extends SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and equality today.

SNCC Digital Gateway (SDG). A joint project of SLP and Duke University, SDG tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project. Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write, and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and the Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.


SNCC & Grassroots Organizing Discussion Series. Feb-May (online and in-Person events). Various locations. SNCC Legacy Project (SLP).

Mississippi Freedom Summer 60th Commemoration Events, Programs and Initiatives.

June 21, Neshoba County MS. 60th Annual Mississippi Civil Rights, Martyrs Memorial Service, Caravan and Conference. Title: How Long?

June 14-16, Nashville TN. SSOC Reunion: In the mid 1960s the Southern Student Organizing Committee (SSOC) emerged from an effort by the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) to reach southern whites. SSOC veterans have organized a reunion to be held June 14-14, 2024, in Nashville, TN. Those who were involved in SSOC chapters and/or other SSOC programs are especially urged to attend. For further information contact Grant Cooper at or by phone at 504-813-9922.

Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1950-1970. See Submissions details.


Top-Ten Most Viewed

According to Google, our top-ten, most-visited sections and individual pages in April were:

Sections, Landing & Reference Pages

  1. Freedom Rides and Freedom Riders Resources
  2. Are You "Qualified" to Vote?—Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
  3. Site Search: Civil Rights Movement Archive
  4. Documents From the Montgomery Bus Boycott
  5. Original Freedom Movement Documents
  6. Poems of the Civil Rights Movement
  7. Documents From the 1960s Sit-Ins
  8. Civil Rights Movement History 1951-1968
  9. Our Stories & Interviews
  10. Freedom Movement Bibliography

Individual Pages & Documents

  1. Bigger Than a Hamburger, Ella Baker. Address: SNCC founding conference (1960)
  2. Photo Album: The Children's Crusade: Birmingham (1963)
  3. Civil Rights Movement History: 1960 (student sit-ins)
  4. Louisiana Voter Application and Literacy Tests
  5. Photo Album: The Sit-Ins—Off Campus and Into Movement (1960)
  6. Civil Rights Movement History: 1961 (Freedom Rides, MS voter registration, Albany GA)
  7. Photo Album: The Freedom Rides (1961)
  8. Alabama Voter Literacy Test
  9. Photo Album: Freedom Summer (1964)
  10. Photo Album: The March to Montgomery (1965)

(Google does not count how often PDF files are accessed. Since most of our documents are in PDF format, the "Top Ten" lists are not all that accurate.)


CRMA Video & Audio

Our CRMA Video Channel on the Vimeo hosting service provides videos created by Freedom Movement veterans (or their immediate families) and videos created by others that are rsubstantially about Movement veterans. When you visit the channel, please consider adding yourself as a "follower" for social-media metrics. Thanks.

New videos posted in April:

Excerpt from Accompanying: The Journey of Alice and Staughton Lynd, by Maestra Productions & Prison Radio. 2023. SNCC, freedom schools, Spelman, Howard Zinn. 23min. (Full film)

Guy & Candie Carawan, by Joseph Mosnier. Music and the Freedom Movement, Highlander Folk School. 2011. 53min

Audrey Hamilton & JoeAnn Ulmer, by Joseph Mosnier. St. Augustine sit-ins and protests of 1963 and 1964. 2011. 67min

Phil Hutchings, by Joseph Mosnier. NAG, SNCC, MFDP, SDS. 2011. 164min

Lavaree Jones, 2005. Mississippi. Child Development Group of Mississippi (CDGM). 45min.

Michael Van Leesten, interviewed by Rob Widell. University of Rhode Island Multicultural Center, 2014. 42min.

Gary Rothberger, interviewed by Rob Widell. University of Rhode Island Multicultural Center, 2014. 42min.

David Reily, interviewed by Rob Widell. University of Rhode Island Multicultural Center, 2014. 41min.

David Trimble, interviewed by Rob Widell. University of Rhode Island Multicultural Center, 2014. 32min.

New Audio recordings added in April

James Bell & Laura Spears: Interview by Mimi Feingold re the Movement, repression, and arrests in Clinton, LA. 23min

Frederick Douglas Lewis: Interview by Mimi Feingold re voting rights and the Movement Claiborne Parish, LA. 24min


New Links Added to Film, Videos & Audio Bibliography

Peggy Preacely (Peggy Trotter Dammond Preacely), 148min. Oral history, by Samuel Proctor Oral History Program, Univ. of Florida, 2023.


New Movement Documents

1962SNCC Newsletter, Vol 1, No 3. Reports & updates from the field. December 14, 1962
1963SNCC Newsletter, Vol 1, Nos 11, 12, 13. Reports & updates from the field. March 1, 1963
1964List of Home Papers. Unsigned CORE, Louisiana summer project. Undated 1964
1964Personal questionaire instructions, W.H. Webb, CORE. Undated (presumed summer, 1964). Probably for Louisiana summer project.
1965Dear Friends of SNCC memo on Colman senate judicial appointment hearing. 7/1/65. Re mobilizing opposition to his appointment. (Unsuccessfully)
1965Running Incident Summary for the Month of July 1965, unsigned SNCC. 6 pages
1965Dear Friend of Freedom, fund appeal for integrated Young Democratic Club of Mississipi. Joyce Brown. 8/2/65. (Handwritten)
1965Fund raising for SNCC, September 1965 (page may be missing), unsigned, SNCC. 9/65.
65? 66?State Conference and Leadership Institute Proposal. Unsigned SNCC, undated (probably 1965 or '66)
66? 65?Spring Conference proposal. Unsigned SNCC. Undated (probably 1966, possibly 1965)
1966Summary of a Statement by Stokely Carmichael on the Civil Rights Bill of 1966. Opposes useless bill that fails to address real needs. Undated (probably summer 1966)
1966Dear Friend letter to supporters by CORE National Director Floyd McKissick re white racism, Black Power, CORE, and the Freedom Movement. Undated (probably October, 1966)
1967The Crusader, Vol 8, No 2. Robert F. Williams, January 1967. (Published in exile.)

Freedom Movement Publications

SCLC Newsletter: March, 1963 — Albany GA, burned churches, Citizenship program

WATS & Phone Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC February 6, 1964. Hattiesburg, Frank Smith; Washington DC, Stokely; Danville VA, Avon Rollins.

SNCC February 6, 1964. Jackson, Emma Bell; Atlanta.

SNCC February 6, 1964. Canton MS, list of people bailed out of jail.

SNCC February 7, 1964. Hattiesburg, trials & tribulations, Jackson, Charlie Cobb.

SNCC February 7, 1964. Dallas TX, Tom Brown on student strike at Bishop College.

SNCC February 8, 1964. Hattiesburg, Sandy Leigh, Lawrence Guyot, Pete Stoner, Moncure Fortnot; Chapel Hill NC, J.V. Henry, mass protests.

SNCC February 9, 1964. Chapel Hill NC, J.V. Henry, protests & arrests; Hattiesburg, Sandy Leigh & Lawrence Guyot.

SNCC February 10, 1964. Jackson & Canton arrests & trials.

SNCC February 10, 1964. (No location) violence against activists trying to desegregate eating establishments.

Vietnam War & Military Draft Documents

1963Vietnam Student Peace Union (SPU) article. Unsigned. April 1964 (pages missing)
64? 65?Smash the Draft, April 26. Unsigned S.F. State Draft Resistance Union (SDS). Undated April 26, (possibly 1965 or 1966)
1965An Outline History of Viet Nam. Unsigned Committe to End the War in Viet Nam (Madison WI). 3/30/65. 15 pages.
1965Letter to Lucy Montgomery re funds for Assembly of Unrepresented People (AUP), A.J. Muste, CNVA. 7/13/65. Anti-Vietnam War gathering.
1965We Declare Peace, Call for an Assembly of Unrepresented People (AUP). Washington DC August 6-9, 1965. Bob Parris, Eric Weinberger, many others. (Early mimeod version)
65? 66?A Call to Resist Illegitimate Authority, re Vietnam War and military draft. Unsigned. Undated (possibly 1966 or 1967).
65? 66? 67?The Legal 'Posture' of Resistance to American Intervention in Vietnam Unsigned. Undated (possibly 1965, '66 or '67)
1967Resist the War & the Draft, Defend Pvt. Ron Lockman, protest at S.F. Presidio. Unsigned. November 12, 1967
1968You Cannot Have Wars Without Women, Betty Meredith, Frances Steadman, Jannette Rankin Brigade. January 8, 1968.

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

5/64COREPosition Paper - Bank of America Project, unsigned CORE
5/64COREWhy Are We Picketing? Picket line flyer. Unsigned CORE. Undated (probably late May 1964)
5/64CORERules for Picketers, Unsigned CORE (possibly Bakersfield). Undated (probably late May 1964)
5/64CORELegal arguments re rights of minors to participate in protests, Unsigned CORE (probably California). Undated (possibly May 1964)
5/22/COREPress Release: Bakersfield CORE to picket Bank of America, Unsigned CORE
5/27/64CORELocal Negro Leaders Praise Both Pickets and Bank of America, Unsigned. Probably distributed by Bakersfield CORE
12/64FoSBay Area Friends of SNCC newsletter, MFDP Congressional Challenge, Westcoast Conference, MCHR, more...
2/65YDPacific Scene (formerly Young Democrat), George Ballis. Bob Moses universal questions, UC regents vs farm workers, CORE & NAACP in San Francisco.
7/65 Note from D. Gorton to Lucy Montgomery re equipment fundraising idea.
7/7/65SenateBoiler plate response from Sen. Edward Kennedy to Lucy Montgomery about her opposition to Coleman judicial appointment
7/9/65AUPDear Mitch, unsigned note about August 6th Congress of Unrepresented People (later changed to "Assembly") in Washington. (Possibly from Lucy Montgomery.)

Students for a Democratic Society Documents

4/65Brothers and Sisters, memo re April anti-war march in Washington and plan of action. Paul Booth & Todd Gitlin. Undated (probably late April or early May 1965)
8/7/65Dear Friend, description and fund appeal for JOIN interracial convention of poor people in Newark NJ. Rennie Davis, SDS.

SF State BSU/TWLF-Led Student & Faculty Strike (1968-1969)

Article about suspension of Prof. Murray and the politics behind it, Bill Barlow & Peter Shapiro. Reprinted from Open Process. Undated (possibly October 1965) 6 pages.

Open Process, January 22, 1969. 16 pages.

Rise Up, legal rights info for students. Flyer distributed to strikers. Unsigned. Undated (probably 1968)


New Letters & Reports From the Field

9/30/64Judy Richardson, SNCCDear Dr. Foster, letter to president of Tuskeegee requesting meeting to discuss regional student conferences, and 1965 summer project.
6/2/65W.H. Forsyth? COFO?Report for Madison County MS, 6/2/65
7/2/65Mary Larson, COFO?Note to Lucy Montgomery re freedom schools and Movement activity in West Point MS (Clay Co). 8 pages.
7/17/65Charney Bromberg, CORE Report on attempt to integrate the white public park in Canton MS
8/4/65Arlene Wilgoren, SNCCDear Mrs. Montgomery, thank you note for mimeograph donated to Pine Bluff AR protect
8/6/65Rick Saling, COFOValley View Weekly Report, MS
8/9/65C. Conrad Brown, HERCDear Lucy, note regarding Highlander Center workshops, TN
8/14/65Rick Saling COFO/COREValley View Weekly Report, Madison Co. MS
8/15/65Marshall BloomDear Mrs. Montgomery, letter re Alabama and future activities.
8/16/65Rev. R.R. RoweDear Lucy, letter about need for freedom house in Fitzgerald GA (Ben Hill Co.)
8/18/65John Buffington, SNCCNote about Beasley boycott, West Point, MS


New Additions to Our Stories

James Bell & Laura SpearsInterview by Mimi Feingold (Clinton, LA)
Guy and Candie CarawanInterview by Joseph Mosnier. Highlander Folk School and music in the Freedom Movement. 2011. 29 pages
Frederick Douglas LewisInterview by Mimi Feingold (Claiborne Parish, LA & voting rights)


New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

1966The SNCC Trends: Challenge to White America. By Anne Braden, Southern Patriot. May 1966 (after election of Stokely Carmichael as SNCC Chairman)
1967Liberation Will Come From a Black Thing James Forman. Black Workers Congress (BWC).


New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month


New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Dorie Ladner

Bill Strickland


New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

What were the failures of the Civil Rights Movement?


New Additions to Poetry

No new poems added this month.


New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

Freedom Movement Art

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

Recent Books by or About Movement Veterans:

Love Letter from Pig: My Brother's Story of Freedom Summer, by Julie Kabat. University Press of Mississippi, 2023. Based on primary-source materials, the personal story of volunteer Luke Kabat and the Meridian MS (Lauderdale Co.) project.

No Ordinary Joe: Lesson From a Life of Community Organizing for Social Change, by Jerome Christensen. Wordshop at Fourth & Sioux, September 2023. Life of Civil Rights Movement activist and community organizer Joe Morse.

Standing, by Ernest McMillan. August, 2023.

My Country Is the World: Staughton Lynd's Writings, Speeches, and Statements against the Vietnam War, edited by Luke Smith. Foreword by Staughton and Alice Lynd. Haymarket Books, 2023.

The Struggle of Struggles, by Vera Pigee (1924-2007), edited by Frangoise Hamlin, University Press of Mississippi. 2023. New edition of Vera Pigee autobiography chronicles Coahoma County MS, NAACP, Women's leadership, grassroots organizing, citizenship schools, voter registration, and the Baptist church.

A Day I Ain't Never Seen Before Remembering the Civil Rights Movement in Marks, Mississippi, by Joe Bateman, Cheryl Lynn Greenberg, and Richard Arvedon. How the civil rights movement unfolded in a small rural town, far from the cameras.

Stayed On Freedom: The Long History of Black Power through One Family's Journey, by Dan Berger, Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons. An authorized biography of Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons that brings into focus the lives of two unheralded Black Power activists who dedicated their lives to the fight for freedom. Basic Books, January 2023.

By Hands Now Known: Jim Crow's Legal Executioners, by Margaret Burnham, 2023. Investigation of Jim Crow-era racial violence, the legal apparatus that sustained it, and its enduring legacy. If the law cannot protect a person from a lynching, then isn't lynching the law?

Anne Braden Speaks: Selected Writings and Speeches, 1947-1999, Ben Wilkins, editor. Monthly Review Press, August 2022. Representative collection of Braden's writings, speeches, and letters, covering the full spectrum of her activism: from the relationship between race and capitalism, to the role of the South in American society, to the political function of anti-communism.

Recent Films & Videos By or About Movement Veterans:

Lowndes County and the Road to Black Power, by Sam Pollard & Geeta Gandbhir, Multitude Films in association with The Atlantic. Story of the local movement and young Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organizers who fought not just for voting rights, but for Black Power in Lowndes County Alabama. 2022. 90min.


As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them in to us.

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 — Bruce Hartford,

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