Civil Rights Movement Archive (CRMA)
New & Announcements

June 1st, 2024

🎉 10,000+  🎆

As of June 1st, our online archive contains 10,041 searchable pages, documents, images, and recordings, plus 353 videos in our Vimeo video channel. Ta-da!

According to Google, there were 31,446 visits to the CRMA website during May for an average of 1014 per day. This is approximately 8% less than May of last year.

Ever since 2020, our traffic has been declining. Since two-thirds of our visitors are students (grade school and college) we believe that some of this decline stems from the vicious and unrelenting war being waged by Republicans and MAGAites against teachers, librarians, schools, and colleges who dare stand against racism and educate around issues of racial justice. Nevertheless, we still stand and will persevere.

On school days, the number of visitors ranged from 800 to 1200 per day. Roughly 16% of our visitors came from outside the U.S.


Please Donate.
With a Little Help From Our Friends,
We'll keep on keeping on.

Ever since we established the CRMA (formerly known as "CRMVet") in 1999, it has been almost entirely funded by personal donations from Freedom Movement veterans and individual supporters. We carry on this work with almost zero institutional support, foundation grants, or philanthropic contributions. So if you find our CRMA site useful and worthy, please click donate to keep us alive and growing. You can donate via check, your bank's Bill Pay service, or PayPal. Thank you for anything you are able to contribute.


Our Sister Sites

SNCC Legacy Project (SLP). SLP preserves and extends SNCC's legacy. Although SNCC the organization no longer exists, we believe that its legacy continues and needs to be brought forward in ways that continue the struggle for freedom, justice and equality today.

SNCC Digital Gateway (SDG). A joint project of SLP and Duke University, SDG tells the story of how young activists in SNCC united with local people in the South to build a grassroots movement for change that empowered the Black community and transformed the nation.

Teaching for Change and Zinn Education Project. Provides teachers and parents with the tools to create schools where students learn to read, write, and change the world by promoting and supporting the teaching of people's history in middle and high school classrooms across the country.

SCOPE 50. Preserving Civil Rights and the Story of Voting. Website of SCLC/SCOPE project activists.

Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement. Empowering the next generation, passing it on to carry it on by preserving the history of the Mississippi Movement.


Mississippi Freedom Summer 60th Commemoration Events, Programs and Initiatives.

60th Annual Mississippi Civil Rights, Martyrs Memorial Service, Caravan and Conference. Title: How Long? June 21, Neshoba County MS.

SSOC Reunion: June 14-16, Nashville TN. Program. For further information contact Grant Cooper at or by phone at 504-813-9922.

Movement Art: If you are aware of any works of art related to the Freedom Movement such as paintings, drawings, murals, statues, and so on, please take a look at our Civil Rights Movement Art page to see if we already have an image of it in our collection. If it isn't included in our collection please email us an image we can post, or a weblink, or some other information that we can use. Thanks.

Movement Materials: Please continue to email to us documents, letters, reports, stories, and other Southern Freedom Movement materials from the period 1950-1970. See Submissions details.


Top-Ten Most Viewed

According to Google, our top-ten, most-visited sections and individual pages in June were:

Sections, Landing & Reference Pages

  1. Freedom Rides and Freedom Riders Resources
  2. Are You "Qualified" to Vote?—Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
  3. Poems of the Civil Rights Movement
  4. Documents From the Montgomery Bus Boycott
  5. Original Freedom Movement Documents
  6. Documents From the 1960s Sit-Ins
  7. Site Search: Civil Rights Movement Archive
  8. Freedom Movement Bibliography
  9. Freedom Movement Photo Album
  10. Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Individual Pages & Documents

  1. Photo Album: The Sit-Ins—Off Campus and Into Movement (1960)
  2. Civil Rights Movement History: 1960 (student sit-ins)
  3. Photo Album: The Children's Crusade: Birmingham (1963)
  4. Photo Album: The Freedom Rides (1961)
  5. Bigger Than a Hamburger, Ella Baker. Address: SNCC founding conference (1960)
  6. Photo Album: Freedom Movement in Art
  7. Louisiana Voter Application and Literacy Tests
  8. Alabama Voter Literacy Test
  9. Poems of Langston Hughes
  10. The Other America, Dr. Martin Luther King. (1967)

(Google does not count how often PDF files are accessed. Since most of our documents are in PDF format, the "Top Ten" lists are not all that accurate.)


CRMA Video & Audio

Our CRMA Video Channel on the Vimeo hosting service provides videos created by Freedom Movement veterans (or their immediate families) and videos created by others that are substantially about Movement veterans. When you visit the channel, please consider adding yourself as a "follower" for social-media metrics. Thanks.

New videos posted in May:

Emory Harris, SNCC Freedom Singer. 2007. 37min.

Dorie Ladner, NAACP, SNCC, 1961-68, Mississippi. 2006. 120min.

Helen O'Neal McCray, Freedom Rider. 2007. 61min.

Bob Moses, SNCC, COFO, MFDP, Freedom Summer. 2006. 25min.

Dorothy Zellner, SNCC, SCEF. 2005. 62min.

New Audio recordings added in May

Liberty MSFreedom Movement Meeting, Led by Smiley Proff. 65min.
Madison Parish LAConversation about the Freedom Movement, 1965 10min.
E.W. SteptoeDescription of violence and murder of Herbert Lee in Amite Co. MS. 121min.
Talullah, LAGroup Interview, 1965 or 1966. 41min.


New Movement Documents

63? 64?Notes of a Discussion of Possible Agenda for COFO Meeting, many participants. Undated (probably late 1963 or early 1964). Discussion of COFO 1964 strategy and program.
1963The General Condition of the Mississippi Negro Unsigned COFO. October 1963. 1st Edition. 20-page research report
1963The Mississippi Delta: Part II, unsigned COFO. Submitted to the National Council of Churches (NCC). COFO Publication #3. November 1963.
1963Freedom Vote for Governor: Statement on Events in Jackson MS. Unsigned COFO. Arrests & intimidation. 11/2
1963Freedom Vote, Statement of Events in Natchez. Unsigned COFO. November 2, 1963. Violence & intimidation.
1963Freedom Vote, Summary of Events in Yazoo City . Unsigned COFO. November 10, 1963. Intimidation, arrests, harassment
1963Draft campaign speech Aaron Henry, 'Freedom Vote' candidate for Mississippi governor. Undated Sept-Nov, 1963
1963Outline for Maureen Murphy. Draft description of COFO strategy and program for 1964. Unsigned. December 1963. 9 pages.
1964Dear --, Alabama campus organizing letters. Judy Richardson, SNCC. September 17, 1964.
1964The Freedom Democratic Party is a people's organization, opinion memo re MFDP, COFO, SNCC. Unsigned SNCC? Undated (probably Sept or Oct 1964)
1964Prospectus for an Educational Workshop Program re internal movement education. Unsigned SNCC? Undated (probably Sept-Nov 1964). Page(s) missing?
1964Hey! Organizing letter to student in Tennessee. Judy Richardson SNCC. December 11, 1964.
1965Complaint letter to Atlanta postmaster re failure to deliver mail, Judy Richardson SNCC. February 23, 1965
1965SNCC Expenditures -- June 1965 Jack Minnis, SNCC. 7/19/65
1965Proposed Letter to Area Contacts, unsigned HREC. 10/6/65. Outreach to contacts re Conrad Brown meetings with activists
1965Report & fund appeal to major donor, Gustav Heningburg, LDF
66? 67?The Atlanta Project Has an Office at 142 Vine St., unsigned notice and staff list. Undated 1966 or 1967
1967Organized Labor and the Black Worker United Electric Workers (UE). August 1967. 28 pages.

Summer Volunteer Parents-Related Documents

1/13/65Parents Mississippi Freedom Association Meeting, by Dorothy Humm
2/3/65Parents Mississippi Freedom Association Meeting, by Dorothy Humm
2/16/65Parents Mississippi Freedom Association Bail Committee Meeting, by Dorothy Humm
2/26/65Parents Mississippi Freedom Association Newsletter
3/3/65Parents Mississippi Freedom Association Meeting, by Dorothy Humm
3/23/65Parents Mississippi Freedom Association Meeting

Press Releases

7/15/65COREBogalusa Lousiana Protest Escalates
7/22/65COREU.S. Action Against Police & Klan Follows Assaults on Pickets, Bogalusa LA
7/22/65COREDenver Columnist Publicizes CORE's Summer Slum Campaign, CO.
7/22/65COREBiggest Demonstration for Civilian Review Board, Newark NJ
8/30/65CORECORE Registers Over 4,000 Voters, Canton & Madison Co. MS

WATS & Phone Reports (Log of daily phone-in reports)

SNCC February 11, 1964. Hattiesburg, Sandy Leigh; NY Office, Jim monsonis.

SNCC February 12, 1964. Selma, Tom Brown; Hattiesburg, Sandy Leigh; NY Office, Jim monsonis.

SNCC February 12, 1964. Canton, Charlie Cobb Hattiesburg.

SNCC February 13, 1964. Selma, Tom Brown, trials.

SNCC February 13, 1964. Hattiesburg, Frank Smith; Greenville, Carol Bolton, student walkout; Jackson, Cliff Vaughs, food for Ruleville & police harassment.

SNCC February 13, 1964. Jackson/Canton, Emma Bell, arrest of C.O. Chinn; Jackson, student activist Willie Ware in jail.

SNCC February 13, 1964. Hattiesburg, Sandy Leigh. trials; Jackson, Mendy Samstein, report of shooting in Tippo (Tallahatchie Co.).

Vietnam War & Military Draft Documents

1964Mr. and Mrs. Voter open letter to the president. Unsigned Ad-Hoc Vietnam Peace Committee. Undated 1964 (probably summer or early fall)
1967Spring/National Mobilization Against the War in Vietnam.
New York City April — Washington DC, Pentagon, October

Mobilization internal documents (39 documents)

Mobilization organizing and education materials (25 documents)

Student Mobilization materials and documents (6 documents)

Mobilization newsletters (4 newsletters)

Mobilization press releases (2 releases)

1967Stop the Draft Week, October 1967. (16 documents)
1967The Days We Seized the Streets in Oakland, Stop the Draft Week, October 1967. The Movement newspaper. 11/67. 16 pages.

Documents from the Northern Wing of the Movement

1950sSLIDThe Student Movement in the 50s, a Reminiscence. Andre Schriffrin. Radical America, 1968
11/61CORENorthwest Area CORE-Lator, newsletter
1963SPUStudent Peace Union Constitution 1962-63. Unsigned SPU
1/63SPUSPU Peacemaker, SoCal newsletter.
4/63SPUStudent Peace Union Bulletin, unsigned SPU. (14 pages)
4/63WRLDear Friend letter to WRL supporters re relationship of peace and civil rights movements. Bayard Rustin, WRL
4/64CPO/COREErgo & Downdraft, CPO newsletter. New York City (possibly Brooklyn) 17 pages
The Stall-In Worked (Brooklyn CORE, Worlds' Fair)
New Yorks Segregated Schools & Desegregation Effors
Brooklyn CORE Rent Strike
Downdraft (End the Draft)
????UnsignedSong lyrics. Unsigned. Undated (probably mid to late 1960s)
68-71Var.Movement Legal & Security Research Documents
Law Enforcement Methods of Surveillance
Radical's Guide to Grand Juries
Where are the Clark Kents of Yesteryear?


New Letters & Reports From the Field

3/9/64Ed Heininger, NCCReport on Canton MS (Madison Co.), MS. 14-pages
3/7/65Roy Shields, SNCCMemo on Cordell, GA
6/14/65Fannie Rush, SNCCNote to Judy Richarson re freedom school
8/22/65Unsigned VSCRCDear Mrs. Montgomery, re Hampton SNCC conference, summer project, and field work in Virginia
8/29/65Marshall Bloom, SCDear Mr. Gregory, letter to Dick Gregory re Southern Courier and the movement in Alabama
10/6/65C. Conrad Brown, HRECDear Bette, letter to Mrs. Johnson and Bea Schniederman re Friends of Highlander outreach
10/23/65Lulu Bell JohnsonDear Montgomery, letter to Mrs. Montgomery re SNCC and clothing drive in Greenwood MS. (Handwritten)
6/4/66Jon Tavasti, COREHi Ho Bruce, letter about state of the Movement in Venice & L.A. CA (Handwriten)
7/66Bruce Hartford, SCLCLetter about Meredith Mississippi March and Grenada MS


New Additions to Our Stories

Liberty MS.Freedom Movement Meeting, Led by Smiley Proff 1966
Madison Parish LAConversation about the Freedom Movement Madison in Parish LA, 1965
E.W. SteptoeDescription of violence and murder of Herbert Lee in Amite Co. MS, 1964
Talullah, LAGroup Interview, 1965 or 1966. 41min


New Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

1959?Non-Violence Against Jim Crow, Jim Peck, CORE. History of CORE 1942-1958. Undated (probably late 1959 or early 1960)
1964Demonstrations, a Twentieth Century Christian Witness Rev. Andrew Young, Social Action, May 1964
1965Vietnam and Civil Rights, Two Papers. SSOC. 9 pages.
"A Talk with Bob Parris" (Moses) and "Should Civil Rights Workers Take a Stand," Howard Zinn
1966Power and Racism, Stokely Carmichael, SNCC. 10 pages.


New Additions to Our Thoughts

Quantifying White and Jewish CRM Participation and Support, Bruce Hartford. 2024

Paul and Patricia Bokulich: Civil Rights Workers in Greene County AL, Paul T. Murray. 2024


New Names Added to the Activist Roll Call

No new names added to the Roll Call this month


New Tributes & Memories added to In Memory

Joe Schwartz


New Answers Added to Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ):

No new answers added this month.


New Additions to Poetry

No new poems added this month.


New Additions to the Photo Album Pages:

No new photos added this month

Web Links and Bibliography updated, revised, & expanded.

Recent Books by or About Movement Veterans:

The Rise and Fall of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, by Martin Oppenheimer. Native Publishers, 2024. Concise history including the historical antecedents, the Greensboro sit-ins, Freedom Summer, the violence of KKK and police, and its demise around 1973.

Love Letter from Pig: My Brother's Story of Freedom Summer, by Julie Kabat. University Press of Mississippi, 2023. Based on primary-source materials, the personal story of volunteer Luke Kabat and the Meridian MS (Lauderdale Co.) project.

No Ordinary Joe: Lesson From a Life of Community Organizing for Social Change, by Jerome Christensen. Wordshop at Fourth & Sioux, September 2023. Life of Civil Rights Movement activist and community organizer Joe Morse.

Standing, by Ernest McMillan. August, 2023.

My Country Is the World: Staughton Lynd's Writings, Speeches, and Statements against the Vietnam War, edited by Luke Smith. Foreword by Staughton and Alice Lynd. Haymarket Books, 2023.

The Struggle of Struggles, by Vera Pigee (1924-2007), edited by Frangoise Hamlin, University Press of Mississippi. 2023. New edition of Vera Pigee autobiography chronicles Coahoma County MS, NAACP, Women's leadership, grassroots organizing, citizenship schools, voter registration, and the Baptist church.

A Day I Ain't Never Seen Before Remembering the Civil Rights Movement in Marks, Mississippi, by Joe Bateman, Cheryl Lynn Greenberg, and Richard Arvedon. How the civil rights movement unfolded in a small rural town, far from the cameras.

Stayed On Freedom: The Long History of Black Power through One Family's Journey, by Dan Berger, Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons. An authorized biography of Zoharah Simmons and Michael Simmons that brings into focus the lives of two unheralded Black Power activists who dedicated their lives to the fight for freedom. Basic Books, January 2023.

By Hands Now Known: Jim Crow's Legal Executioners, by Margaret Burnham, 2023. Investigation of Jim Crow-era racial violence, the legal apparatus that sustained it, and its enduring legacy. If the law cannot protect a person from a lynching, then isn't lynching the law?

Recent Films & Videos By or About Movement Veterans:

Lowndes County and the Road to Black Power, by Sam Pollard & Geeta Gandbhir, Multitude Films in association with The Atlantic. Story of the local movement and young Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) organizers who fought not just for voting rights, but for Black Power in Lowndes County Alabama. 2022. 90min.


As always comments, suggestions, corrections, and submissions from Freedom Movement activists are welcome. Veterans of the Southern Freedom Movement who are listed on the website's Roll Call are encouraged to contribute to the website their stories, thoughts, documents, and memories & tributes of those who have passed on by emailing them in to us.

If you're not already a subscriber to the monthly email version of this newsletter, send us your email address and let us know you'd like to be added to the list. To unsubscribe (heaven forfend!) do the same.

 — Bruce Hartford,

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