Civil Rights Movement Archive
Our Words, Articles & Speeches

This section contains articles, speeches, and other material created in the 1950s and '60s by Freedom Movement participants.

General Topics

Example Segregation Laws. (Birmingham & Montgomery)
Voting Rights in America — Two Centuries of Struggle, Bruce Hartford
Are You "Qualified" to Vote? — Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
Freedom Songs and Singers. (Multiple articles)
Nonviolent Resistance. (Multiple articles)
Dr. Martin Luther King. (Multiple speeches & articles)
Quotations From the Freedom Movement

Article Collections re Major Events

Albany & SWGA Movement (61-64)  
ASCS Elections (65-67)
Birmingham Movement (56-66)
Black Power (66-68)
Chaney-Schwerner-Goodman Lynching (64)  
Free Southern Theater (64-68)
Freedom Rides (1961)
Freedom Summer (1964)
Lowndes County, AL (65-67)
March on Washington (1963)
McComb MS, Incidents & Events (61-65)
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (63-68)
Mississippi Freedom Movement (55-68)
Montgomery Bus Boycott (55-56)
St. Augustine Movement (63-64)
School Desegregation (63-64)
SCLC/SCOPE Project (65-66)
Selma & March to Montgomery (63-65)
Sit-Ins (60-66)
SNCC Founding (1960)
Vietnam War & Military Draft (65-68)
Women in the Freedom Movement

Individual Articles & Speeches

1916How the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Began, Mary White Ovington, NAACP. Re-issued 1954.
1946    Behold the Land, W.E.B. DuBois. Address to Southern Youth Legislature of the Southern Negro Youth Congress
1947An Appeal to the World, edited by W.E.B. DuBois. NAACP petition to the United Nations.
1951 Marxism and Negro Liberation (25-page pamphlet), Gus Hall, CPUSA. May 1951
1951We Charge Genocide (full text), Civil Rights Congress (CRC). See "We Charge Genocide" Petition to the UN for background. November 1951
1951We Demand Freedom! William L. Patterson, Civil Rights Congress (CRC).
1951?Crises No. 3, Howard Fast, writing for the CRC. Undated (probably late 1951)
1952Act Together Now to Halt the Killing of Our People! Paul Robeson. (Re Murder of Harry & Harriette Moore)
1952Martyr for a Cause: Christmas Night Bomb Assasination of Harry Moore, Gloster Current, NAACP. (Re Murder of Harry & Harriette Moore)
1953Civil Rights in'54 Depends on the Fight Against McCarthyism, Paul Robeson
54-66Literacy and Liberation, Septima P. Clark. Freedomways. (See Citizenship Schools for background.)
1954 What Negroes Want Now, Walter White, NAACP. U.S. News & World Report. (See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
1954Status of Racial Integration in the Armed Forces, Clarence Mitchell. NAACP. Journal of Negro Education.
1954Southern Negroes at the Ballot Box, Herbert Hill, NAACP. Crises, May, 1954.
1954How Washington's Color Line Looks to Me, Walter White, NAACP. Saturday Evening Post. (See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
1954Bonds of Brotherhood, Paul Robeson
1955Address to Montgomery Bus Boycott Mass Meeting (transcript), Rev. Martin Luther King (MIA), Holt Street Baptist Church, December 12, 1955.
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1954Desegregation at Work: Progress and Problems, Henry Lee Moon. NAACP. Nation, December 18, 1954. (School desegregation.) (See Brown v Board of Education and "Massive Resistance" to Integration for background.)
55-56 Montgomery Bus Boycott (Multiple articles & documents)
1955Mississippi Today — History in the Making, Paul Robeson.
1955 Desegregation in the Public Schools: Role of the NAACP, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. Social Problems, April, 1955. (See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
1955Behind the Lynching of Emmet Louis Till, Louis Burnham, Freedom Associates. December 1955. 16-page pamphlet.
56-66 Birmingham Movement. (Multiple articles & documents)
1956The South in Conflict, Herbert Hill, NAACP. New Leader, April 2nd
1956Civil Liberties, by Maurice Goldbloom, American Jewish Committee. April 1956. Summary of significant civil liberties cases mid-1954 to mid-1955.
1956Civil Rights, by Theodore Leskes, American Jewish Committee. April 1956. 41-page state by state breakdown of significant civil rights issues and cases mid-1954 to mid-1955.
1956Next Steps in the South, New South, Southern Regional Council. (See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
1957Even in the Face of Death, Bayard Rustin. Liberation. (See Southern Christian Leadership Conference Founded for background.)
1957 Birth of a New Nation Montgomery, Dr. Martin Luther King, Montgomery
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1957Address by Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth at Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom, Washington, DC.
1957Robeson Urges Government Defend Constitution, Paul Robeson. September 23, 1957. Regarding school desegregation in Little Rock Arkansas.
1957Swimming Pool Showdown, Robert Williams. Southern Exposure. (See Robert Williams & Armed Self-Defense in Monroe NC for background.)
1958Integration Must Move, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. Atlantic Monthly.
1958 Nine Courageous Students, Clarence Laws, NAACP. Crises. Re Little Rock
1958Interview: Paul Robeson, Pacifica radio. Re racism, political activism & repression
1958 A First Step Toward School Integration, Ann Holden, Nashville CORE. (Pamphlet) Chronology of Events: Nashville School Desegregation, 1955-1958, Anna Holden, CORE. (See Nashville "Grade-a-Year" School Desegregation Scheme for background.)
1960Sit-Ins of 1960-61. (Multiple articles)
1960Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Founded. (Multiple articles)
1960 The Montgomery Situation, Lawrence Dunbar Reddick, Alabama State College. (See Alabama Attacks Black Leaders and Montgomery Sit-ins Suppressed for background.)
1960 Anti-Negro Prejudice, When it Began When it Will End, George Breitman, (SWP)
1960Jesus as a Free Speech Victim, Trial by Terror 2000 Years Ago, Clifford Durr, reprinted by ECLC. August 1960
60-66 Some Civil Rights Related Cartoons, Jules Feiffer.
1961 The United States and the Negro, W.E.B. Du Bois
1961 Freedom Rides. (Multiple articles & Documents)
1961The White Problem, Albert Bigelow. Liberation. (See Freedom Rides for background.)
1961The Successful Sit-Ins in a Border City: A Study in Social Causation, August Meier, Journal of Intergroup Relations 1961. (See Baltimore Sit-ins & Protests for background.)
1961 The Economics of Racism, Michael Harrington, Commonweal Magazine, July 7, 1961. (CORE reprint).
53-61Cracking the Color Line. Multiple articles about CORE actions & campaigns.
61-67SNCC Organizing Presence in Alabama: A Partial Timeline, Gwen Patton.
61-64Albany & S.W. Georgia Movement. (Multiple articles)
62? '63? Sick And Tired, Youth Night Address to the American Baptist Convention, Marian Wright, ABC, undated (possibly 1960-63)
1962The Display of a Feather, Rev. Will Campbell. New South. (The Manifesto of the Order of the Variegated Feather)
1962 Senate testimony on literacy test bill, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. April 12, 1962
1962 Justice? Testimony of Ronnie Moore, Bob Moses, & Bob Zellner. CORE Committee of Inquiry, May, 1962
1962The Southern Youth Movement, Julian Bond. Freedomways. (See Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Founded for background.)
1962Report on Voter Registration Work, Jack O'Dell, SCLC
1962Negro Youth's New March on Dixie, Ben Bagdikian, Saturday Evening Post. Re SNCC.
1962They Know They're Niggers, Margaret Long, New South, October 1962. (re violence & repression in Mississippi.)
1962The Labor Class at Tougaloo, Fall, 1962 (Re Jackson MS Movement of 1962-63)
1962Tennessee: How to Keep People From Voting , Jerry DeMuth. Gazette & Daily, York PA. December 8, 1962
1962Draft Second Emancipation Proclamation, Martin Luther King & Clarence Jones. See The Campaign for a Second Emancipation Proclamation for background.
1962Freedom Now — the SNCC Story, Charles McDew & Mike Miller
62-64Focus on Cambridge, Gloria Richardson. Freedomways. (See Cambridge MD — 1962 for background.)
1963Why Didn't They Hit Back? Jhan & June Robbins, Redbook. CORE pamphlet. (See Cambridge MD — 1962 for background.)
56-66 Birmingham Movement. (Multiple articles & documents)
1963New Currents in the Civil Rights Movement, August Meier, Baltimore CIG. 27-page pamphlet Re CIG, CORE, Northwood Theatre campaign, and general analysis of new militancy.
1963Race in the Land of Lincoln (Cairo IL), Jerry DeMuth. Commonweal, April 5, 1963
1963 SNCC Testimony, House Judiciary Committee, May 28, 1963. (These documents and testimoney were regarding a voting rights bill introduced by Rep. Emanual Celler in April 1963.)
      Appendix A: Survey of Current Field Work, Spring 1963
      Robert Moses et al v Robert Kennedy et al
      Appendix C: Report on Leflore County
      Appendix D: Chronology of Abuses
1963Danville Virginia SNCC pamphlet (See Danville VA, Movement for background.)
1963Approximate Chronology of the Danville Movement, Danny Foss, SNCC
1963 Danville, VA (Police violence). Louis Nasper, SNCC. Freedomways
1963The Indiana "Subversion" Speech June 1963. Transcript of and Q&A about speech by Black socialist Leroy McRae at Univ. of Indiana (Bloomington). (Three student members of the Young Socialist Alliance were indicted on felony sedition charges for promoting and attending McRae's address to over 100 students and faculty.)
1963 From Morning Until Night ... Humiliation Stalks Them, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. Testimony before Congress re the Civil Rights Act.
1963March on Washington. (Multiple articles)
1963 Random Thoughts on Southern Politics and Civil Rights, Charles Morgan, Address to NSA Conference, August 19 1963
1963I Have a Dream, speech by Martin Luther King, August 28, 1963
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1963Guilty Bystanders, James Farmer. Liberation. (See Birmingham Church Bombing for background.)
1963Smoke Screen—the Red Scare, Anne Braden. Freedomways
1963Siege at Savannah, Benjamin Van Clark. Freedomways
1963On the Role of Private Black Colleges in the Southern Freedom Movement, John Salter (Hunter Bear), September 11, 1963
1963Address to SCLC Convention, Wyatt T. Walker. (After March on Washington and Birmingham Church Bombing)
1963Go South, Young Man! Dennis Weeks Liberation magazine. Re: sharecroppers evicted in TN for trying to vote, Eric Weinberger, and the Haywood Handicrafters League.
1963SNCC: The Battle-Scarred Youngsters, Howard Zinn. The Nation
1963Registration in Alabama, Howard Zinn. New Republic (See Freedom Day in Selma for background.)
1963The Negro People in the Southern Economy, Jack O'Dell, SCLC. Freedomways Fall 1963
1963Nonviolence and Police Brutality, Quebec-Guantanamo Peace Walkers. Liberation
63-64St. Augustine Movement. (Multiple articles)
1963 Birth of a Voter, Bob Adelman. (CORE reprint of an Ebony Magazine article written in 1963.)
1963 Integration in the Deep South: Death Goes On, Miriam Cohen, SNCC
1963Speech to Annual SNCC Conference, Bayard Rustin. Washtington DC, 12/1/63
1963 Difficult to Organizing the Poorest and the Wealthiest Among Negroes..., , John Perdew, SNCC. I.F. Stone's Bi-Weekly, December 9 1963
1963Democracy in the South, Justice Department vs Officers of Winona, MS, Septima Clark. SCLC. (See Atrocity in Winona for background.)
63? 64?War on SNCC: Turning Point for Freedom Fighters, Jack Rosen, PL. Undated (probably late 1963 or early 1964
1963 The Ultimate Conquest of Negro Economic Inequality, Ernest Calloway, NALC, NAACP, January 1964
1964Mandate From History: SNCC Takes Stock, Elizabeth Sutherland (Betita Martinez), SNCC. Nation magazine, January '64
1964House Un-American Activities Committee: Bulwark of Segregation, Anne Braden, SCEF.
64-65 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), (Multiple articles)
1964 Incident in Hattiesburg, Howard Zinn. The Nation (See Freedom Day in Hattiesburg for background.)
1964 The New Jacobins and Full Emancipation, James Farmer, CORE. (On nonviolence & strategy.)
1964 Speech by Mike Miller regarding SNCC and the Freedom Movement, February 1964.
1964Way of Life in Mississippi, Joanne Grant, National Guardian, February 13, 1964
1964Address to West Coast Civil Right Conference, Bob Moses, COFO/SNCC. April 23, 1964
1964Fight the Backlash, Speech to United Packinghouse Workers, Bayard Rustin. May 1964. (See Cambridge MD & the "White Backlash" for background info.)
1964Rifle Squads or the Beloved Community, A.J. Muste, FoR, CORE, Liberation, May 1964
1964Christian Reflections on Issues Posed by the Racial Crisis, multiple authors. Social Action (published by the Council for Christian Social Action of the United Church of Christ), May 1964
64-66Freedom is not Free: Meridian Movement of the Mid-60s, George Smith & Joe Morse
1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer Articles. (Multiple articles)
1964Chaney-Schwerner-Goodman Lynching, (Multiple articles)
1964Revelation in Mississippi, Elizabeth Sutherland, (Betita Martinez) SNCC. National Guardian. August 8, 1964
1964 Fannie Lou Hamer's Testimony at Democratic Convention. (See MFDP Challenge to Democratic Convention for background.)
1964Letter From Jackson re Freedom Summer, Calvin Trillin, New Yorker. August 29, 1964
1964McComb Mississippi, Incidents & Events (Multiple articles)
1964 Black Belt, Alabama: Total Segregation, Jerry DeMuth. Commonweal
1964Bob Moses Speech to National Guardian Dinner, November. (See MFDP Challenge to Democratic Convention for background.)
1964Notes From Mississippip, Jerry DeMuth, The Independent. October 1964
1964Notes From Mississippip, Jerry DeMuth, The Independent. November 1964
1964Notes From Mississippip, Jerry DeMuth, The Independent. December 1964
1964 The Negro Vote: An Analysis, SNCC. (Re 1964 presidential vote in the South.)
1964The Murder of Three Civil Rights Workers, the Atlantic City Convention, and the Congressional Challenge, Robert Moses, SNCC/COFO. November 1964
1964 James Forman Speech to SNCC Staff Retreat, Waveland, MS, Nov 6
1964 Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech
1964 The Mississippi Idea: Schools in Context, Howard Zinn, Nation Magazine, November 23 1964. SNCC reprint.
1964The South And Civil Rights: More Than the FBI, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. York PA Gazette & Daily, December 8, 1964
1964 Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech
64-65Mississippi Congressional Challenge, (Multiple articles)
64-66Free Southern Theater. (Multiple articles)
1965Article about Negro alliances (begining may be missing), Bob Moses, SNCC. Pacific Scene February 1965
1965Selma Voting Rights Campaign & March to Montgomery (Multiple articles)
1965From Protest to Politics: the Future of the Civil Rights Movement, Bayard Rustin.
1965 Address to Southern Student Organizing Committee, Stokely Carmichael, SNCC. March 21, 1965
1965?Organizing in the Northern Ghettos — SNCC Style, Jack Newfield, Village Voice. Undated (probably 1965)
1965 How Long? Not Long — Our God is Marching On! Dr. Martin Luther King. Address to voting rights marchers, Montgomery AL
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1965The March on Montgomery, Margaret Long, SRC.
1965The Legacy of W.E.B. Du Bois, Horace Mann Bond. Freedomways, 1st Quarter
1965The Legacy of W.E.B. Du Bois, Paul Robeson. Freedomways, 1st Quarter
1965Lawrence Guyot's Testimony for Congressional Challenge (See MFDP Congressional Challenge for background.)
1965Two for SNCC, Bob Moses & Stokely Carmichael interviewed by Robert Penn Warren
65-67Lowndes County Freedom Organization/Black Panther Party (Multiple articles)
1965When We Get the Vote, Wallace Will Get Religion (Montgomery), Bell Chivigny (Village Voice)
1965Selma's Future: The Unsolved Police Problem, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. York PA Gazette & Daily, April 6, 1965.
1965Questions Raised by Bob Moses, SNCC 5th Anniversary. 1965.
1965Short History of the Freedom Movement in Barbour County, Alabama, Larry Scott Butler, SCLC/SCOPE (See SCOPE Summer Project for background. See also Diary of Diary of an Alabama SCOPE Volunteer)
1965Violence In Alabama, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. Frontier, June 1965
1965The Question of SNCC, Jack Newfield, Nation magazine. July 19, 1965
1965SNCC: Rebels With a Cause, SNCC Reprint, Lerone Bennett Jr. Ebony magazine. July 20 1965
1965 The Los Angeles Rebellion of 1965, John Perdew, SNCC. August 1965
1965The Ins and Outs of SNCC, Nancy Stoller (grad student paper) Fall, 1965
1965Am I My Brothers Keeper?, Helen Howard (Vine City neighborhood, Atlanta). New South, November 1965.
1965 SNCC: The Qualities of Protest (review & discussion of Zinn's "The New Abolitionists), Tom Hayden, SDS. "Studies on the Left," winter 1965
1966 Strangely Beautiful Land–Land of Injustice, Dagmar Schultz. (Observations of a European)
1966SNCC-1966, Stokely Carmichael, SNCC
66-68Black Power (Multiple articles)
1966 Who is Qualified? Stokely Carmichael, SNCC. New Republic, January 8 1966.
1966A Confirmed Segregationist Judge (re court ruling against Voting Rights Act), Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. March 1, 1966
1966SNCC Charts a Course,, Stokely Carmichael, May 1966. Interviewed by William Price, National Guardian reprint.
1966Justice Department Ignores Vote Law (re reluctance to enforce Voting Rights Act), Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. May 23, 1966
1966The White House Conference and the "Great Society," Freedomways editors, 2nd Quarter, 1966. See White House Conference on Civil Rights for background.
1966View From the Free Southern Theater, Denise Nichols, FST. Liberator, July 1966.
1966 Meet the Press Discussion, Stokely Carmichael (SNCC), Martin Luther King (SCLC), Floyd McKissick (CORE), James Meredith, Whitney Younge (Urban League), Roy Wilkins (NAACP) August 21 1966
1966Grenada Mississippi—Chronology of a Movement, Bruce Hartford.
66? 67? The New Nonviolence, David Dellinger. Undated. Published by SSOC.
1967Statements & Speeches in and regarding Puerto Rico, Stokely Carmichael:
Joint Statement on racism & imperialism, SNCC, MPI, FUPI. January 25, 1967
Speech at the University of Puerto Rico, January 25 1967
Joint Statement of SNCC and the Movement for Puerto Rican Independence, January 27, 1967
Speech to University of Puerto Rico student body, January 28, 1967
1967 The Problem is Poverty, Don Jelinek. (Re: racism in the U.S. Department of Agriculture and economic racism.
1967Anti-Semitism and Black Power, James Baldwin & Ossie Davis. Freedomways, 1st Quarter, 1967
1967Speech to Black Caucus of NCNP by James Forman, September 2nd. (National Conference for New Politics held in Chicago.)
1967 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence, Dr. Martin Luther King. Riverside Church, New York City, April 4, 1967. Address to Anti-War Marchers, Dr. Martin Luther King. New York City, April 15, 1967
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1967 The Other America, Dr. Martin Luther King. (1967)
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1967 Organized Labor and the Black Worker, United Electrical Workers & Machine Workers of America (UE), August 1967
1967Journey to North Vietnam,, Diane Nash Bevel. Freedomways, 1967
1967 Negro Women in Freedom's Battles, Augusta Strong. (Originally published in Freedomways, Winter, 1967)
1967Cooperation, Not Competition; Community, Not the Individual, SNCC. (Statement on education and the Black community.)
1967 Rock Bottom (re SNCC, the Movement & Black Power), James Forman, SNCC
1968? 1967 High Tide of Black Resistance, James Forman. 27-page page SNCC pamphlet.
1968The Civil Rights Movement: What Good Was It?, Alice Walker. Undated, possibly 1968
1968 "I Have Been to the Mountain Top", Dr. Martin Luther King. (1968) Dr. King's last speech, Memphis, TN
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1968Memphis is Also America, Pat Watters. Nation
1968The Technological Revolution: Human and Social Ecology, Michael Harrington, LID. Undated
1968 Lessons of Laurel: Grassroots Organizing in the South, Bob Analavage & Dottie Zellner, SCEF.
1968Two contending articles about SNCC-Black Panther Party breakup Julius Lester & Robert Allen, Guardian. August 1968
1968Wallace and Hitler, Carl Braden, SCEF. Southern Patriot, December 1968
1968They Are Victims Also: Challenge in the White Community, Julius Lester, SNCC. Southern Patriot, December 1968
1968How Repression Works: N.C. Dentist Found Guilty of Negligence, Southern Conference Education Fund (SCEF). Southern Patriot, December 1968
1968The Poor People's Campaign, and The Poor People's Campaign and Other Lobbies, Warren Pritchard, SRC. New South, Fall 1968
1968State of the Soutern States, Southern Regional Council (SRC). New South, Fall 1968
1969Climbin' Jacob's Ladder: The life and Times of the Freedom Movement, Jack O'Dell, SCLC & Freedomways
1969The Black Woman in the Civil Rights Struggle the Long View, Ella Baker, speech to Institute of the Black World in Atlanta
1970 Developing Community Leadership, Ella Baker.
1970History of Southern Students Organizing Committee (SSOC), Tom Gardner, 1970
1970I Never Died, Said He, Ethel Bertolini-Shapiro. About the assassination of Martin Luther King
1971A Rock in a Weary Lan' ~ Paul Robeson's Leadership and "The Movement" in the Decade before Montgomery, Jack O'Dell, SCLC & Freedomways.
1994Free at Last, a History of the Civil Rights Movement, (100 page booklet). Southern Poverty Law Center (SPLC)

See also:

History & Timeline: 1951-1968 — Descriptions of Movement events.
Letters & Reports From the Field — By Movement veterans.
Documents — Movement publications, reports, organizing, strategy, etc.
Photo Album — Movement photos, posters, etc.
Our Thoughts — Retrospectives and later analysis by Movement veterans.
Our Stories — Memories, narratives & interviews of Movement veterans.
Our Thoughts — Analyses and commentaries by Movement veterans.
Discussions — Transcripts of group discussions by veterans.

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