This page provides links to Civil Rights Movement Archive resources that have significant content related to voting rights and literacy tests.
Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
CRMA History Articles About Voting Rights
Speeches and Articles About Voting Rights
Original Documents Related to Voting Rights
Commentaries & Analyses by Movement Veterans
Film, Video and Audio
Photo Album pages that include images of voting rights protests and voter registration campaigns:
Keep Your Eyes on the Prize
Down to the Grassroots
Mississippi: Into the Storm
Freedom Is a Constant Struggle
Selma, Lord, Selma
March to Montgomery
SCOPE Project, 1965
Before I'll Be a Slave...
Meredith Mississippi March, 1966
Grenada Freedom Movement, 1966
Freedom Movement Posters
Introduction: the Literacy Test System
AlabamaVoter Registration in Alabama (c.1965)
Alabama Voter Application Form (c.1965)
Alabama Voter Literacy Test (c.1965)
GeorgiaVoter Registration in Georgia (c.1963)
Summary of Georgia's New Registration Law (c.1958)
It's Easy to Register! (Georgia voter registration training, the "30 Questions")
Sumter Character Test (Sumter County GA voter registration training, 1963)
SCLC Citizenship Clinic Manual: Georgia Voter Registration (c.1962)
Louisiana:Louisiana Voter Application & Literacy Test (c.1963)
Instructions to Louisiana Registrars (c.1963 or 1964)
Negro Voting in Louisiana, Baton Rouge Committee on Registration Education. Undated (probably 1963 or 1964)
CORE Voter Training Instructions (c.1964)
MississippiVoter Registration in Mississippi
Mississippi Voter Application & Literacy Test (c.mid-1950s)
Literacy test questions & voting rights materials
Practice Mississippi voter registration form partially filled in by Percey Lee Brewer
South CarolinaSouth Carolina Voter Application (c.1964)
CRMA history articles related to voting rights and literacy tests.
Voting Rights in America Two Centuries of Struggle
Murder of Harry & Harriette Moore (Dec, 1951)
Citizenship Schools (1954-196?)
Rev. George Wesley Lee Murdered (May 1955)
Lamar Smith Murdered (Aug 1955)
Tuskegee Merchant Boycott (1957-1961)
SCLC Crusade for Citizenship, 1957-1960
Fayette County Tent City for Evicted Voters (1959-1963)
Dr. King, JFK, and the 1960 Election (Oct-Nov 1960)
Voter Education Project (VEP) (1961-1968)
Direct Action or Voter Registration? (1961)
Voter Registration & Direct Action in McComb MS (Aug-Oct 1961)
Herbert Lee Murdered (Sept 1961)
Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) Formed in Mississippi (1962)
Mississippi Voter Registration Greenwood (1962)
Voter Registration Movement Expands in Mississippi (Spring) (1963)
Atrocity in Winona (June 1963)
Selma — Breaking the Grip of Fear (Jan-June 1963)
Struggle for the Vote Continues in Mississippi (July-Aug 1963)
Freedom Day in Selma (Oct 1963)
Freedom Ballot in MS (Oct-Nov 1963)
24th Amendment Ends Poll Tax in Federal Elections (Jan 1964)
Louis Allen Murdered (Jan 1964)
Freedom Day in Canton (1964
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) Founded (April 1964)
1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer (June-Aug 1964)
Lynching of Chaney, Schwerner, & Goodman (June 1964)
McComb — Breaking the Klan Siege (July '64-March '65)
MFDP Challenge to Democratic Convention (Aug 1964)
The Selma Injunction (July 1964)
MFDP Congressional Challenge (Nov '64-Sept '65)
Selma Voting Rights Campaign (Jan-Mar 1965)
The March to Montgomery (Mar 1965)
Murder and Character Assasination of Viola Liuzzo (Mar 1965)
Passage of the Voting Rights Act (Mar-Aug 1965)
Cracking Lowndes County (Mar-Aug 1965)
Jackson, MS Protests (June 1965)
Summer Community Organization Political Education Project (SCOPE 1965)
Murder of Jonathan Daniels (Aug 1965)
Natchez MS — Freedom Movement vs Ku Klux Klan (1965)
Birmingham Voter Registration Campaign (Dec-Mar 1965-66)
Julian Bond Denied Seat in GA Legislature (Jan 1966)
State Poll Taxes Ruled Unconsitutional (Mar 1966)
Lowndes County: Roar of the Panther (1966)
Grenada MS Freedom Movement (June-Dec 1966)
1966 Alabama Elections (1966)
Speeches and articles related to voting rights and literacy tests by Freedom activists in the 1950s-1960s.
1952 Martyr for a Cause: Christmas Night Bomb Assasination of Harry Moore, Gloster Current, NAACP 54-66 Literacy and Liberation, Septima P. Clark. Freedomways. (Citizenship schools) 1954 Southern Negroes at the Ballot Box, Herbert Hill, NAACP. Crises 1962 Senate testimony on literacy test bill, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. 1962 Report on Voter Registration Work, Jack O'Dell, SCLC 1962 Tennessee: How to Keep People From Voting , Jerry DeMuth. Gazette & Daily, York PA 1963 SNCC Testimony, House Judiciary Committee re proposed voting rights bill 1963 Go South, Young Man! Dennis Weeks Liberation magazine. (TN sharecroppers evicted for trying to vote) 1963 SNCC: The Battle-Scarred Youngsters, Howard Zinn. The Nation 1963 Registration in Alabama, Howard Zinn. New Republic (See Freedom Day in Selma for background.) 1963 Birth of a Voter, Bob Adelman. 64-65 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), (Multiple articles) 1964 Incident in Hattiesburg, Howard Zinn. The Nation 1964 Address to West Coast Civil Right Conference, Bob Moses, COFO/SNCC 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer Articles. (Multiple articles) 1964 Revelation in Mississippi, Elizabeth Sutherland, (Betita Martinez) SNCC. National Guardian 1964 Fannie Lou Hamer's Testimony at Democratic Convention 1964 Letter From Jackson re Freedom Summer, Calvin Trillin, New Yorker 1964 Bob Moses Speech to National Guardian Dinner re MFDP Challenge to Democratic Convention 1964 The Negro Vote: An Analysis, SNCC. (Re 1964 presidential vote in the South.) 1964 The Murder of Three Civil Rights Workers, the Atlantic City Convention, and the Congressional Challenge, Robert Moses, SNCC/COFO 1965 Selma Voting Rights Campaign & March to Montgomery (Multiple articles) 1965 How Long? Not Long — Our God is Marching On! Dr. King's address voting rights marchers, Montgomery AL 1965 The March on Montgomery, Margaret Long, SRC. 1965 Lawrence Guyot's Testimony for Congressional Challenge 65-67 Lowndes County Freedom Organization/Black Panther Party (Multiple articles) 1965 When We Get the Vote, Wallace Will Get Religion (Montgomery), Bell Chivigny (Village Voice)
Collections of original Freedom Movement documents related to voting rights and literacy tests.
Documents From the Voter Education Project (VEP)
Documents From the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) (MS)
Documents From the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MS)
Documents From the Freedom Summer Projects
SCLC's SCOPE Project Documents
Citizenship School Documents
Lowndes County, AL. Documents
Canton & Madison Co. MS. Documents
McComb & Pike Co. MS Documents
Post-1960s commentaries, thoughts, and analyses by Movement veterans regarding voting rights and literacy tests.
1976 How I Learned About the Right to Vote Classie McCullough (81) 2004 Chaney, Schwerner, Goodman 40th Memorial 2005 Georgia's Fraudulent Anti-Fraud Legislation Julian Bond 2007 Constitutional People, U.S. Senate testimony Bob Moses 2009 Long Time Coming (Election of Obama) Wally Roberts 2009 21 Months (Election of Obama) Helen Singleton 2009 "Atlantic City Revisited" — Mondale & "The Movement" Mike Miller 2010 Freedom is Not Free: The Meridian Movement of the Mid-60s Smith & Morse 2011 You Came Here to Die, Didn't You? Jo Freeman 2012 Lawrence Guyot's Thoughts Lawrence Guyot 2013 Voting Rights Act: Friend of the Court Brief VMCRM 2013 A Global Spotlight on Voter Suppression Ron Carver 2013 Reaction to Supreme Court Overturning VRA Maria Gitin 2013 Homily for the Jonathan Daniel Pilgrimage Gloria House 2013 A Memory from ... when Viola Liuzzo Was Murdered Peter de Lissovoy 2014 Growing Up in Harlem (Mississippi Freedom Summer) Bob Moses 2014 Founding SNCC and Taking on Mississippi Bob Moses 2014 Fannie Lou Hamer and the Racist Dixiecrats Bob Moses 2014 The Road to Freedom Summer Bob Moses 2014 An Earned Insurgency (The thinking behind Freedom Summer) Bob Moses 2014 "We the People" Confront Democratic Party Leadership in '64 Bob Moses 2014 My Parents Said Yes! Chude Allen 2014 Fannie Lou Hamer & the Democratic Party Marsha Rose Joyner 2014 The Mississippi Summer Project 50th Anniversary Notes ... Mike Miller 2014 Address to Freedom Summer 50th Commemoration Julian Bond 2014 The MFDP: 50 years Later a Time for Evaluation Mike Miller 2015 The Historical Context of Voting Rights Bruce Hartford 2015 Selma to Montgomery: But What About SNCC? Junius Williams 2015 From Hawai'i to Selma Marsha Rose Joyner 2015 Call to Selma, a Review From the Bridge "Arkansas" Benston 2015 Selma the Movie: Thoughts & Comments by Freedom Movement activists
2016 St. Matthews, SC and Fifty-one Years Lynn Goldsmith Goldberg 2016 Testimony to the Democratic Platform Committee on
Voting as a Constitution Right
Robert (Bob) Moses, SLP, SNCC 2018 Selma: The Bridge and Beyond Alma Jean Billingslea Brown 2020 Voter Suppression in Minority Communities Statement by John Lewis 2020 Voter Suppression in Minority Communities Timothy Jenkins, testimony 2021 Jim Crow Voting Laws ~ Then and Now Bruce Hartford
Films & documentaries, videos, and audio recordings related to voting rights and literacy tests.
[Not all are available for online streaming. Some are accessed through Kanopy which requires library-card or college-ID log-in. Some are accessed through commercial straming platforms such as Prime.]
Dirt and Deeds in Mississippi, by California Newsreel, 2015. Weaves together interviews with civil rights activists, archival film footage, and original historical research to portray a key period of civil rights history leading up to the Voting Rights Act of 1965. Not available for streaming.
Dream Deferred. SNCC, 1964. Produced for Freedom Summer (also available from Prime).
Fannie Lou Hamer's America, by From the Heart Productions. Documentary told through the public speeches, personal interviews, and powerful songs of the fearless Mississippi sharecropper-turned-human-rights-activist.
For Us the Living, 1983. Anchor Bay Entertainment. Story of Medgar Evers. Screenplay by Ossie Davis. Starring Howard Rollins, Jr., Irene Cara, Laurence Fishburne, and Paul Winfield. Not available for streaming.
Freedom On My Mind, California Newsreel, 1994. The story of the Mississippi freedom movement in the early 1960s when a handful of young activists changed history. Not available for streaming.
Freedom Song (TNT Movie). Fictional account of the Movement in Mississippi in the early '60s. Closely based on actual events in McComb, 1961. Well researched, and powerfully presented. Danny Glover stars. Live stream (BMETV)
Freedom Summer, Firelight Films. Documentary narrating events of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer. Live stream (YouTube)
The Freedom Summer Murders — Was It Worth It? (re Chaney, Schwerner, Goodman lynching), by two junior high students from New York City as National History Day Competition, 2019.
Home of the Brave, About Viola Luizzo the only white woman murdered in the civil rights movement in America and why we don't know who she is.
Iowans Return to Freedom Summer, by Keeping History Alive foundation. 2015. Firsthand accounts from six Freedom Summer volunteers from Iowa who reflect on their motivations, fears, triumphs and the life altering events that took place 50 years ago. Live stream (IPTV)
Louisiana Diary, KQED. Documentary that follows the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) as they undertake an African American voter registration drive in the town of Plaquemine, Louisiana, in 1963.
Mississippi Freedom Summer, 1964: Memory, Legacy & the Way Forward, by Civil Rights History Project Collection (LoC & NMAAHC). 4 hour discussion of the 1964 Freedom Summer project by Bob Moses, Dorie Ladner, Joyce Ladner and Charlie Cobb. 2014.
Organizing Lowndes County: Then & Now, April 2017. Roundtable discussion with Jennifer Lawson, Courtland Cox and Catherine Flowers.
Selma, Paramount Pictures, 2015. Powerful and moving historical drama about the historic 1965 Selma Voting Rights campiagn and March to Montgomery.
Selma: The Bridge to the Ballot, Teaching Tolerance. Documentary about a group of students and teachers who nonviolently fought to win voting rights for African Americans in the South.
Selma, Lord, Selma. Film made from the book of the same name about Selma's "youngest freedom fighters," Sheyann age 8, and Rachel age 9.
Sisters of Selma: Bearing Witness for Change. (Alabama Public Television.)
Streets Of Greenwood, by Jack Willis and Ed Emshwiller, 1962. Documentary about SNCC's voter registration efforts in Greenwood MS. 20 minutes.
Voting rights protests Montgomery (raw footage), by newsmedia? police?, Silent.
The Way to Freedom: Selma and the Making of a Movement, by NPS, 2020. The story of courageous ordinary citizens — many of them teenagers — who successfully challenged racism, bigotry, and entrenched power in Selma, Alabama in the 1960s to gain the right to vote. Narrated by "unsung heroes" of the voting rights movement in Selma and Marion, Alabama.
Freddie Greene Biddle, 90-min interview by Emilye Crosby about SNCC & the Mississippi movement. 2015.
Walter Bruce, 85-min interview by John Dittmer about Mississippi movement & Freedom Summer, 2011.
Robert Clark, 118-min interview by John Dittmer about Mississippi & election to office.
Peggy Jean Connor, 81-min interview by Emilye Crosby about Mississippi, COFO, MFDP, and NAACP 2015.
Glenda Funchess, 84-min interview by Emilye Crosby about Hattiesburg Mississippi and the movement, 2015.
Bruce Hartford, Selma and the Long Struggle for Voting Rights. 10-minue address to the John Lewis Memorial, "Good Trouble Vigil for Democracy." Oakland, CA. July 2021.
Jesse Hill, one-hour interview about 1950s voter registration in Atlanta, student movement, and SNCC. 2005.
Willie B. Wazir Peacock: Stand for Freedom, 1hour, 23 minutes.
The story of Willie Peacock, one of the original SNCC field secretaries organzing in the Mississippi Delta. (YouTube video.)
Zoharah Simmons, 97-minute interview by Joseph Mosnier about SNCC, Laurel MS, & the movement. 2011.
Euvester Simpson, 95-minute interview by John Dittmer about SNCC, COFO, MFDP and the movement in rural MS. 2013.
Lisa Anderson Todd, 169-minute interview by Emilye Crosby about SNCC & MFDP. 2013.
Hollis Watkins, 72-minute interview by Julian Bond oral history Project. 2019.
Junius Williams, 174-minute interview by Joseph Mosnier about SNCC, the March to Montgomery & the Movement. 2011.
Fannie Lou Hamer: Roots of Her Activism. (History Channel)
Mississippi Becomes a Democracy. Story of voter registration, Freedom Summer, and the MFDP challenge in Atlantic City.
Mississippi Oral Histories (multiple oral-history recordings).