This page provides links to Civil Rights Movement Archive resources that have significant content related to the Freedom Summer projects of 1964 and 1965 and their role in the Freedom Struggle.
The various summer projects were designed to bring in to the South out-of-state Civil Rights Movement volunteers to assist local community organizing and voter registration efforts. The largest and best known Freedom Summer effort was the 1964 Mississippi Summer Project effort organizied by the Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) which was itself a coaltion of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), Congress of Racial Equality (CORE), Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), and the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). CORE also ran 1964 summer projects in Louisiana and North Florida.
In 1965, COFO and CORE ran smaller follow-on projects in Mississippi, Louisiana, and North Florida. Also in 1965, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) organized the multi-state Summer Community Organizing Political Education (SCOPE) project in Virginia, the two Carolinas, Florida, Georgia, and Alabama.
Freedom Summer Photos Freedom Summer Interviews, Memories & Stories Remembrances of Freedom School Students CRMA Freedom Summer History Articles 1960s Era Freedom Summer Speeches and Articles by Movement Veterans Original Freedom Summer Document Collections Post-1960s Freedom Summer Commentaries & Analyses by Veterans Freedom Summer Film, Video and Audio Recordings
Freedom Summer, 1964.
SCOPE Project, 1965.
In the summers of '64 and '65 more than a thousand volunteers came South to support the Civil Rights Movement. They worked in Black communities and were housed in the homes of courageous African Americans who defied segregation. Led by each communities' local leaders and supervised by SNCC, CORE, and SCLC field secretaries, they assisted with voter registration and forming political organizations, taught in Freedom Schools, set up community centers, offered legal aid, and provided emergency medical care. Along with the people whose lives they shared in the Black community, they endured the danger and hardship of civil rights work in the Deep South.
Most of the SNCC, CORE, and SCLC staff who led the volunteers were African
Most of the volunteers but certainly not all were college students or recent grads.
Most of the volunteers but certainly not all were from the North.
Most of the volunteers but certainly not all were white.
They were warned of the danger they would face but they came anyway. Three in 1964, and one in 1965, were murdered by racist police and Klan, others were beaten, abused, and jailed. They were a living witness of solidarity with the courageous communities of Mississippi who were demanding freedom and equality for all. These are their stories:
Year without parenthesis is year events occurred. Year in parenthesis is year story was told or written. Unidentified Mama, I Got to Do It, I Got To, Mississippi Sandra Adickes History Lessons in Hattiesburg, MS. 1964 George Albertz Tells His Experiences as a Freedom Summer volunteer, MS. 1964 Chude Pam Parker Allen My Parents Said Yes!" MS. 1964
Why I Am Going to Mississippi
Would You Marry One?
Loneliness in the Circle of Trust
Watching the Iris Grow
An Activist & Freedom School Teacher (2018)
David Bailin Mississippi Summer Project Diary. 1964 Corinne Freeman Barnwell Mass Meetings & New Orlans Freedom School, LA. 1965 (2014)
My Freedom School Experiences — Mississippi & New Orleans, 1964-65 (2018)
Stephen Bingham A WASP in the Movement, MS. 1963-64. (2018) Heather Tobis Booth Interview, MS. 1964 (2012)
Memories From Shaw, Especially of the Hawkins Family, MS. 1964 (2014)
Ron (Cole) Bridgeforth Starkville & Oktibbeha County Mississippi, 1964 (2013)
To be Worthy of the Trust (2018)
Peter Buck Transcript of 1965 Journal, AL. 1965 Larry Butler Diary of an Alabama SCOPE Volunteer, AL. 1965 Charleana Cobb Interview, by Gloria Xifara Clark, MS. 1964 (1995) Lester Coles Interview by Joe Sinsheimer re Fredom Summer MS. 1964 Fatima Cortez-Todd Interview, by students. LA. 1964 (2012)
Honoring Our Ancestors, Honoring Ourselves (2010)
William (Bill) Day From Kansas to Mississippi, 1964. (2020) Jennie Nancy Dishotsky Memories of the Freedom Summer Project, MS. 1964 (2014) Karen Duncanwood Remembrances of Mississippi Summer 1964 (2010) Gail Falk Remembering Freedom Summer, MS. 1964 (2013) Barney Frank Interview re Freedom Summer, by Joe Sinsheimer, MS. 1964 (1983) Joanne Gavin Answers to Jon Hale's Freedom School Questionnaire, MS. 1964 (2008) Maria Gitin Story From Wilcox County, Alabama Alabama
Sim Pettway, Student Civil Rights Leader, Camden AL. 1965
Letter From Wilcox County, AL
Lynn Goldberg Diary of a Young Civil Rights Worker, SC 1965 Linda Halpern The Shooting of Silas McGhee Greenwood, MS. 1964
Stokely and Freedom Summer (2018)
Sandra Hard Statement about Freedom Summer, MS Robert C. Hargreaves Mississippi Freedom Summer 1964 (2013) Bruce Hartford SCOPE—Crenshaw County Alabama, 1965
Rural Alabama Sit-in, 1965 (2002)
Dave's Driving Lesson, 1965 (2002)
Showdown in Brantley, 1965 (2002)
Albert Turner & the Rocking Chair, 1965. (2010)
Janet Heinritz-Canterbury From Appleton to Gee's Bend MS, AL, 1965 (2018) Marion Helland Freedom School, Voter Registration, Marches, AL MS, 1965-66 James Kates June & August, 1964 MS. Lanny Kaufer UCSB SCOPE Project, Sussex County, VA. 1965 (2013)
SCOPE Project Success Story, VA. (2013)
Adam Kline Greenwood Mississippi, 1964 (2010) Marion Kwan Fighting for Civil Rights in Hattiesburg, MS 1965
They Hadn't Counted On Me Comin', MS 1965
Daily Log, Hattiesburg. 1966
From Chinatown to Mississippi (2018)
Sherie Labedis Fireball in the Night, SC. 1965 (2010)
Journal Excerpts, SCLC/SCOPE. SC, 1965
Rebecca Crawford: A Line in the Sand, SC, 1965 (2013)
Charles Leck Riding on the Spirit of New Orleans, MS. 1964 (2007) Mark Levy I'm Still Arguing With My Mother, MS. 1964 (2014) Lillie and Alice Testimony of two teenagers jailed in Jackson, MS. 1965 Karol Nelson McMahan Fighting for Freedom in the Mississippi Sun, 1964 (2005) Marcia Moore Freedom Summer, My Parents and Me, 1964 (2013) Fran O'Brien Faith and Activism, MS. 1964 (2004) Pike County AL vols Journal, AL. 1965 Vincent K. Pollard Veterans Roll Call Statement, GA. 1965 Peggy Ryan Poole SCOPE in Sussex County, VA. 1965. (2018) Meg Redden Freedom Summer ~ A Memoir, LA. 1964 Neil Reichline Veterans Roll Call Statement, GA. 1965 Ron Ridenour Freedom Summer Orientation, MS. 1964
On the Road to Freedom, MS. 1964
Personal Diary, Moss Point, MS. 1964
Wally Roberts Sheriff Capps & the Shaw Freedom School, MS. 1964 (2014) Larry Rubin A Walk in Holly Springs: 1964, MS. Jeffrey Schwartz CORE's Freedom Summer — My Experiences in Louisiana, 1964 (2010) Jonathan Steele Summer of Hate, MS. 1964 (2004). Richard Stephenson Veterans Roll Call Statement, AL. 1965 Roy Torkington Itta Bena and Elsewhere, MS. 1964 (2011) Rita Walker Meeting the Freedom Workers, MS. 1964
Life in Mississippi: Negro Motherhood
Bob Weil A Faulkner Tale, MS. 1964 (2010) Mark Weiss Interview, MS 1964 (2012) Grenville Whitman Mississippi Summer 1964 (2004) Bright Winn Mrs. Magruder, MS 1964 (2010)
Mississippi Revisited, (2013)
Jacqulyn Reed Cockfield Zellie Rainey Orr Emily Rembert
Freedom Day in Hattiesburg (Jan, 1964) Louis Allen Murdered (Jan, 1964) Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) Founded (April 1964) 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer Events (June-Aug) Mississippi Summer Project Organizational Stucture of Freedom Summer Lynching of Chaney, Schwerner, & Goodman (June) Freedom Schools Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) The McGhees of Greenwood McComb — Breaking the Klan Siege (July '64-March '65) MFDP Challenge to Democratic Convention (Aug) Wednesdays in Mississippi (1964-1965) Delta Ministry Founded in Mississippi (Sept, 1964) 1965 Summer Community Organization Political Education Project (SCOPE) Jackson, MS Protests (June, 1965) Americus GA Protests (July, 1965) Murder of Jonathan Daniels (Aug, 1965)
Some Notes on Education, Charles Cobb, SNCC. Tired of Being Sick and Tired, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. The Nation, 1964. (SNCC reprint) Long Hot Summer in Mississippi & Letter From the South, Kitty Baker, WILPF. July 1964. The Southern Front: 2 Weeks in Mississippi, Bell Gale (Jackson). (Village Voice) Freedom Day in Cleveland MS, Wally Roberts. July, 1964 Violence in Mississippi, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. August 1964 Freedom Schools Open a Door to the World, Joanne Grant. National Guardian. August 29, 1964 All My Days, Wally Roberts. July, 1964 Freedom Summer sermon, Rev. Bruce Hanson, SNCC. August 2, 1964 SNCC: Collegians vs The Klan, Jerry DeMuth. Rogue Magazine, August 1964 Mississippi at Atlantic City Charles Sherrod, SNCC. August 1964
Mimeo version, Reprint version
Letter From Jackson re Freedom Summer, Calvin Trillin, New Yorker. August 29, 1964 The Cat and Mouse Game, Elizabeth Sutherland (Betita Martinez), SNCC (reprint from The Nation, Sept 1964) A Parent Looks Beyond The Summer, William Mandel. (Campus CORE-Lator) The Mississippi Summer Project and the Closed Society, Joe White. (Campus CORE-Lator) Summer in Mississippi, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. Nation magazine. September 14 1964 Bob Moses Speech to National Guardian Dinner, November. Deeper Than Politics, Mississippi Freedom Schools, Liz Fusco, Freedom School coordinator. Liberation, November 1964 Journey to Understanding: Four Witnesses to a Mississippi Summer, Nation. December 1964
"Introduction," Howard Zinn
"The Lawyer," William M. Kunstler
"The Minister," Beverly Allen Asbury
"The Educator," Richard J. Bernstein
Tremor in the Iceberg: The Mississippi Summer, Eric Morton. (Freedomways, Spring 1965) Life in Mississippi, Fannie Lou Hamer. (Freedomways, Spring 1965) Freedom Schools Concept and Organization, Staughton Lynd. (Freedomways.) The Free Speech Movement and the Negro Revolution (52 page pamphlet), Mario Savio, Eugene Walker, Raya Dunayevskaya, Bob Moses. July 1965 Mississippi 1964, Jo Ann Ooiman Robinson. (Fellowship 1989)
Mississippi Literacy Tests & Voter Applications Louisiana Literacy Tests & Voter Applications Alabama Literacy Tests & Voter Applications Mississippi Summer Project Documents, 1964 CORE Louisiana Summer Project, 1964 Summer Project Field Reports & Letters, 1964 CORE North Florida Citizenship Education Project, 1964-1965 CORE Louisiana Summer Project, 1965 SCLC Community Organizing & Political Education Project, 1965
Frank Bates Interview re SCLC, Taliaferro Co. GA & Crawfordsville. 1965
PDF transcript Video + metadata
Julian Bond Address to Freedom Summer 50th Commemoration, 2014 Ron Carver The FBI's Mississippi Myopia, 2005 Bell Gale Chivigny Mississippi Stories I & II, 1994 Jerry DeMuth Mississippi Summer 15 years called a 'Turning Point', 1979 Stuart Ewen This Button Was My Badge, 2017 Jo Freeman You Came Here to Die, Didn't You?, 2011 Another Account of the Second Freedom Summer, 2011 Maria Gitin Wilcox Churches: Sanctuaries & Action Centers, 2014 Lynn Goldsmith Goldberg St. Matthews, SC and Fifty-one Years, 2016 Carol Hanisch Letter to the Editor (re Mississippi Burning movie), 1989 Gloria House Homily for the Jonathan Daniel Pilgrimage, 2013 Terry V. Howard SCLC & Me (Taliaferro Co. GA movement), 2021 Tim Jenkins An Epitaph That Keeps Giving, 2014 Jim Kates Mississippi Smoldering, 1988 Mark Levy What Did You Learn in School Today?, 2015 Sheila Long Fifty-Five Years Later, 2020 Elizabeth "Betita" Martinez On Time in Mississippi, 1964, 1994 Classie McCullough (81) How I Learned About the Right to Vote, 1976 Mike Miller Mississippi Movement Memories, 1991 "Atlantic City Revisited" — Mondale & "The Movement", 2008 The Mississippi Summer Project 50th Anniversary Notes ..., 2014 From Protest to Power, 2019 Susan Moon, 1994 Beloved Community, Mississippi Revisited, 1994 Bob Moses We the People (Freedom Summer 50th Commemoration), 2014 Fannie Lou Hamer and the Racist Dixiecrats (COFO & MFDP) The Road to Freedom Summer An Earned Insurgency (The thinking behind Freedom Summer) "We the People" Force Confronts Democratic Party Leadership in '64 (Convention challenge) Judy Richardson Mississippi Burning, 1989 In the Mississippi River: Heroes and Sheroes:, 2014 Smith & Morse Freedom is Not Free: The Meridian Movement of the Mid-60s, 2010 (Multiple authors) Chaney, Schwerner, Goodman 40th Memorial, 2004
1964: The Fight for the Right, by Mississippi Public Broadcasting. This one-hour MPC documentary examines the civil rights movement and its history using the voices of Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement and includes Mississippi civil rights workers of today. 2018.
A Regular Bouquet: Mississippi Summer [director's cut], by Richard Beymer, 1964. A documentary film by Richard Beymer Documentary on the Mississippi Freedom Summer. Co-produced by Council of Federated Organization Film (COFO). 28min. YouTube live stream.
Dream Deferred. SNCC, 1964. Produced for Freedom Summer (also available from Prime).
Freedom Summer, Firelight Films. Documentary narrating events of the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer. YouTube live stream
The Freedom Summer Murders — Was It Worth It? (re Chaney, Schwerner, Goodman lynching), by two junior high students from New York City as National History Day Competition, 2019. YouTube live stream.
Heather Booth: Changing the World, a documentary film by Lily Rivlin. 2017. How the Civil Rights Movement inspired SNCC activist and Freedom Summer volunteer Heather Booth to a lifetime of fighting for social justice.
Iowans Return to Freedom Summer, by Keeping History Alive foundation. 2015. Firsthand accounts from six Freedom Summer volunteers from Iowa who reflect on their motivations, fears, triumphs and the life altering events that took place 50 years ago. YouTube live stream (IPTV)
Mississippi Freedom Summer, 1964: Memory, Legacy & the Way Forward, by Civil Rights History Project Collection (LoC & NMAAHC). 4 hour discussion of the 1964 Freedom Summer project by Bob Moses, Dorie Ladner, Joyce Ladner and Charlie Cobb. 2014.
Mississippi Cold Case, Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC). Documentary about the Ku Klux Klan murders of two 19-year-old young black men, Henry Hezekiah Dee and Charles Eddie Moore, in southwest Mississippi in May 1964.
Mississippi Justice, by Kirstin Butler, Ben Greenberg and Eric P. Gulliver, (American Experience ~ PBS), 2020. Short 14 minute film, the murders of Chaney, Schwerner and Goodman.
Mississippi Summer: The Unfinished Journey. Films for the Humanities, 1993.
Neshoba: The Price of Freedom The lynching of Chaney, Schwerner, and Goodman and the struggle to bring their killers to justice.
Pursuing a Late Justice: the Prosecution of Mississippi's Civil Rights Murders. Video tape of forum at University of Southern Mississippi. Can be obtained from: Email: Bobs Tusa, $8.00.
SNCC & Freedom Summer, Freedom School series by SpadeWork Community. 2 hour discussion with Zoharah Simmons and Charles Payne. 2021. YouTube live stream.
Frank Bates, 25 minute interview re SCLC, Taliaferro Co. GA & Crawfordsville.
Walter Bruce, 85-min interview by John Dittmer about Mississippi movement & Freedom Summer, 2011.
Willy Leventhal, three-hour interview by David Cline about SCOPE, SCLC, & the movement. 2013.
Kay Tillow, 73-minute interview by David Cline about the Cairo IL and the freedom and labor movements. 2011.
Mississippi Becomes a Democracy. Story of voter registration, Freedom Summer, and the MFDP challenge in Atlantic City.
Chude Allen, My Mother and Father Believe Ours Is a Good Country 2010
Maria Gitin, Story From Wilcox County, Alabama 2010
Linda Halpern, The Shooting of Silas McGhee 2010
Bruce Hartford, Albert Turner & the Rocking Chair 2010
Don Jelinek, The Two Cows 2010
Adam Kline, Greenwood, Mississippi 2010
Sherie Labedis, Fireball in the Night 2010
Bob Weil, A Faulkner Tale 2010
Bright Winn, Mrs. Magruder 2010
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) (Articles)
McComb Mississippi Incidents & Events
Mississippi Movement web links
Freedom Summer Web Links
Mississippi Movement books