Our Words
Articles & Speeches From the Southern Freedom Movement

Submissions Policy

This section contains articles and resources written by Freedom Movement participants about Movement events and aspects. Most of these articles are in PDF format.

General Topics

Example Segregation Laws. (Birmingham & Montgomery)
Voting Rights History — Two Centuries of Struggle, Bruce Hartford
Are You"Qualified" to Vote? — Literacy Tests & Voter Applications
Freedom Songs and Singers. (Multiple articles)
Nonviolent Resistance. (Multiple articles)
Dr. Martin Luther King. (Multiple speeches & articles)

Article Collections re Major Events

Albany & SWGA Movement (61-64)  
ASCS Elections (65-67)
Birmingham Movement (56-66)
Black Power (66-68)
Chaney-Schwerner-Goodman Lynching (64)  
Free Southern Theater (64-68)
Freedom Rides (1961)
Freedom Schools (1964)
Freedom Summer (1964)
Lowndes County, AL (65-67)
March on Washington (1963)
McComb MS, Incidents & Events (61-65)
Mississippi Cong. Challenge (64-65)
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (63-68)
Mississippi ~ Into the Storm (61-63)
Montgomery Bus Boycott (55-56)
St. Augustine Movement (63-64)
School Desegregation (63-64)
SCLC/SCOPE Project (65-66)
Selma & March to Montgomery (63-65)
Sit-Ins (61-63)
SNCC Founding (1960)
Vietnam War (65-68)
Women in the Freedom Movement

Individual Articles & Speeches

1916How the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People Began, Mary White Ovington, NAACP. Re-issued 1954.
1946    Behold the Land, W.E.B. DuBois. Address to Southern Youth Legislature of the Southern Negro Youth Congress
1951We Charge Genocide (full text), Civil Rights Congress (CRC). See "We Charge Genocide" Petition to the UN for background.
1951We Demand Freedom! William L. Patterson, Civil Rights Congress (CRC).
1952Martyr for a Cause: Christmas Night Bomb Assasination of Harry Moore, Gloster Current, NAACP. (See Murder of Harry & Harriette Moore for background.)
54-66Literacy and Liberation, Septima P. Clark. Freedomways. (See Citizenship Schools for background.)
1954 What Negroes Want Now, Walter White, NAACP. U.S. News & World Report. (See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
1954Status of Racial Integration in the Armed Forces, Clarence Mitchell. NAACP. Journal of Negro Education.
1954Southern Negroes at the Ballot Box, Herbert Hill, NAACP. Crises, May, 1954.
1954How Washington's Color Line Looks to Me, Walter White, NAACP. Saturday Evening Post. (See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
1954Desegregation at Work: Progress and Problems, Henry Lee Moon. NAACP. Nation, December 18, 1954. (School desegregation.) (See Brown v Board of Education and "Massive Resistance" to Integration for background.)
55-56 Montgomery Bus Boycott (Multiple articles & documents)
1955 Desegregation in the Public Schools: Role of the NAACP, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. Social Problems, April, 1955. (See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
1955Behind the Lynching of Emmet Louis Till, Louis Burnham, Freedom Associates. December 1955. 16-page pamphlet.
56-66 Birmingham Movement. (Multiple articles & documents)
1956The South in Conflict, Herbert Hill, NAACP. New Leader, April 2nd
1956Next Steps in the South, New South, Southern Regional Council. (See Brown v Board of Education for background.)
1957Even in the Face of Death, Bayard Rustin. Liberation. (See Southern Christian Leadership Conference Founded for background.)
1957 Birth of a New Nation Montgomery, Dr. Martin Luther King, Montgomery
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1957Address by Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth at Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom, Washington, DC
1957Swimming Pool Showdown, Robert Williams. Southern Exposure. (See Robert Williams & Armed Self-Defense in Monroe NC for background.)
1958Integration Must Move, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. Atlantic Monthly.
1958 Nine Courageous Students, Clarence Laws, NAACP. Crises. Re Little Rock
1958 A First Step Toward School Integration, Ann Holden, Nashville CORE. (Pamphlet) Chronology of Events: Nashville School Desegregation, 1955-1958, Anna Holden, CORE. (See Nashville "Grade-a-Year" School Desegregation Scheme for background.)
1960Sit-Ins of 1960-61. (Multiple articles)
1960Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Founded. (Multiple articles)
1960 The Montgomery Situation, Lawrence Dunbar Reddick, Alabama State College. (See Alabama Attacks Black Leaders and Montgomery Sit-ins Suppressed for background.)
60-66 Some Civil Rights Related Cartoons, Jules Feiffer.
1961 The United States and the Negro, W.E.B. Du Bois
1961 Freedom Rides. (Multiple articles & Documents)
1961The White Problem, Albert Bigelow. Liberation. (See Freedom Rides for background.)
1961 The Economics of Racism, Michael Harrington, Commonweal Magazine, July 7, 1961. (CORE reprint).
53-61Cracking the Color Line. Multiple articles about CORE actions & campaigns.
61-66Mississippi ~ Into the Storm. (Multiple articles)
61-67SNCC Organizing Presence in Alabama: A Partial Timeline, Gwen Patton.
61-64Albany & S.W. Georgia Movement. (Multiple articles)
1962The Display of a Feather, Rev. Will Campbell. New South. (The Manifesto of the Order of the Variegated Feather)
1962 Senate testimony on literacy test bill, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. April 12, 1962
1962 Justice? Testimony of Ronnie Moore, Bob Moses, & Bob Zellner. CORE Committee of Inquiry, May, 1962
1962The Southern Youth Movement, Julian Bond. Freedomways. (See Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee Founded for background.)
1962Report on Voter Registration Work, Jack O'Dell, SCLC
1962Negro Youth's New March on Dixie, Ben Bagdikian, Saturday Evening Post. Re SNCC.
1962The Labor Class at Tougaloo, Fall, 1962 (Re Jackson MS Movement of 1962-63)
1962Revolution in Mississippi, Tom Hayden. 30-page Students for a Democratic Society pamphlet about the McComb Movement (2 pages missing) (See Voter Registration & Direct-Action in McComb MS for background.)
62-64Focus on Cambridge, Gloria Richardson. Freedomways. (See Cambridge MD — 1962 for background.)
1963Why Didn't They Hit Back? Jhan & June Robbins, Redbook. CORE pamphlet. (See Cambridge MD — 1962 for background.)
56-66 Birmingham Movement. (Multiple articles & documents)
1963New Currents in the Civil Rights Movement, August Meier, Baltimore CIG. 27-page pamphlet Re CIG, CORE, Northwood Theatre campaign, and general analysis of new militancy.
1963 SNCC Testimony, House Judiciary Committee, May 28, 1963. (These documents and testimoney were regarding a voting rights bill introduced by Rep. Emanual Celler in April 1963.)
      Appendix A: Survey of Current Field Work, Spring 1963
      Robert Moses et al v Robert Kennedy et al
      Appendix C: Report on Leflore County
      Appendix D: Chronology of Abuses
1963Danville Virginia SNCC pamphlet (See Danville VA, Movement for background.)
1963Approximate Chronology of the Danville Movement, Danny Foss, SNCC
1963 Danville, VA (Police violence). Louis Nasper, SNCC. Freedomways
1963 From Morning Until Night ... Humiliation Stalks Them, Roy Wilkins, NAACP. Testimony before Congress re the Civil Rights Act.
1963March on Washington. (Multiple articles)
1963I Have a Dream, speech by Martin Luther King, August 28, 1963
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1963Guilty Bystanders, James Farmer. Liberation. (See Birmingham Church Bombing for background.)
1963Smoke Screen—the Red Scare, Anne Braden. Freedomways
1963Siege at Savannah, Benjamin Van Clark. Freedomways
1963On the Role of Private Black Colleges in the Southern Freedom Movement, John Salter (Hunter Bear), September 11, 1963
1963Address to SCLC Convention, Wyatt T. Walker. (After March on Washington and Birmingham Church Bombing)
1963SNCC: The Battle-Scarred Youngsters, Howard Zinn. The Nation
1963Registration in Alabama, Howard Zinn. New Republic (See Freedom Day in Selma for background.)
1963The Negro People in the Southern Economy, Jack O'Dell, SCLC. Freedomways Fall 1963
1963Nonviolence and Police Brutality, Quebec-Guantanamo Peace Walkers. Liberation
63-64St. Augustine Movement. (Multiple articles)
1963 Birth of a Voter, Bob Adelman. (CORE reprint of an Ebony Magazine article written in 1963.)
1963 Integration in the Deep South: Death Goes On, Miriam Cohen, SNCC
1963Democracy in the South, Justice Department vs Officers of Winona, MS, Septima Clark. SCLC. (See Atrocity in Winona for background.)
1963 The Ultimate Conquest of Negro Economic Inequality, Ernest Calloway, NALC, NAACP, January 1964
1964House Un-American Activities Committee: Bulwark of Segregation, Anne Braden, SCEF.
1964?Some Notes on Education, Charles Cobb, SNCC. (See Freedom Schools for background.)
64-65 Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), (Multiple articles)
1964 Incident in Hattiesburg, Howard Zinn. The Nation (See Freedom Day in Hattiesburg for background.)
1964 The New Jacobins and Full Emancipation, James Farmer, CORE. (On nonviolence & strategy.)
1964 Speech by Mike Miller regarding SNCC and the Freedom Movement, February 1964.
1964Address to West Coast Civil Right Conference, Bob Moses, COFO/SNCC. April 23, 1964
1964Fight the Backlash, Speech to United Packinghouse Workers, Bayard Rustin. May 1964. (See Cambridge MD & the "White Backlash" for background info.)
1964Rifle Squads or the Beloved Community, A.J. Muste, FoR, CORE, Liberation, May 1964
64-66Freedom is not Free: Meridian Movement of the Mid-60s, George Smith & Joe Morse
1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer Articles. (Multiple articles)
1964Chaney-Schwerner-Goodman Lynching, (Multiple articles)
1964 Fannie Lou Hamer's Testimony at Democratic Convention. (See MFDP Challenge to Democratic Convention for background.)
1964Mississippi Violence and Federal Power, William Kunstler. Mississippi Eyewitness
1964McComb Mississippi, Incidents & Events (Multiple articles)
1964 Mississippi From Conversion to Coercion, Christopher Jencks. New Republic, August 22, 1964. (SNCC reprint)
1964Bob Moses Speech to National Guardian Dinner, November. (See MFDP Challenge to Democratic Convention for background.)
1964 Black Belt, Alabama: Total Segregation, Jerry DeMuth. Commonweal
1964 The Negro Vote: An Analysis, SNCC. (Re 1964 presidential vote in the South.)
1964The Murder of Three Civil Rights Workers, the Atlantic City Convention, and the Congressional Challenge, Robert Moses, SNCC/COFO. November 1964
1964 James Forman Speech to SNCC Staff Retreat, Waveland, MS, Nov 6
1964 Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech
64-65Mississippi Congressional Challenge, (Multiple articles)
64-66Free Southern Theater. (Multiple articles)
1965Selma Voting Rights Campaign & March to Montgomery (Multiple articles)
1965 Address to Southern Student Organizing Committee, Stokely Carmichael, SNCC. March 21, 1965
1965 Our God is Marching On! Dr. Martin Luther King. Address to voting rights marchers, Montgomery AL
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1965The Legacy of W.E.B. Du Bois, Horace Mann Bond. Freedomways, 1st Quarter
1965The Legacy of W.E.B. Du Bois, Paul Robeson. Freedomways, 1st Quarter
1965Lawrence Guyot's Testimony for Congressional Challenge (See MFDP Congressional Challenge for background.)
65-67Lowndes County Freedom Organization/Black Panther Party (Multiple articles)
1965Mississippi — State of the Union, Jack O'Dell. Freedomways editorial, Spring, 1965
1965With Our Minds Set on Freedom, Anthology of Writings From Mississippi, Donna Richards, SNCC and many others. Freedomways, Spring, 1965
1965When We Get the Vote, Wallace Will Get Religion (Montgomery), Bell Chivigny (Village Voice)
1965Questions Raised by Bob Moses, SNCC 5th Anniversary. The Movement
1965Mississippi and "The Establishment," Joanne Grant. Freedomways, 2nd Quarter 1965.
1965Portrait of Three Heroes (James Meredith, Medgar Evers, Clyde Kennard), Tom Dent, Free Southern Theater. Freedomways, 2nd Quarter, 1965
1965Short History of the Freedom Movement in Barbour County, Alabama, Larry Scott Butler, SCLC/SCOPE (See SCOPE Summer Project for background. See also Diary of Diary of an Alabama SCOPE Volunteer)
1965 Mississippi Legislature: Old Wine in New Bottles, John Perdew, SNCC. July 1965
1965 The Los Angeles Rebellion of 1965, John Perdew, SNCC. August 1965
1965 Mississippi: A Colony of Standard Oil and Sears, Roebuck, John Perdew, SNCC Research. November 1965
1965Official Christian Leadership Not Doing Job in Mississippi, Malcolm Boyd and William Jacobs, Ave Maria Weekly, 1965. (Delta Ministry reprint)
1965The Ins and Outs of SNCC, Nancy Stoller (grad student paper) Fall, 1965
1966 Strangely Beautiful Land–Land of Injustice, Dagmar Schultz. (Observations of a European)
66-68Black Power (Multiple articles)
1966Mississippi Election—1966 (Panola County), Jonathan Steinberg. Liberation
1966SNCC Charts a Course,, Stokely Carmichael, May 1966. Interviewed by William Price, National Guardian reprint.
1966The White House Conference and the "Great Society," Freedomways editors, 2nd Quarter, 1966. See White House Conference on Civil Rights for background.
1966Grenada Mississippi—Chronology of a Movement, Bruce Hartford.
1966Politics of Necessity & Survival in Mississippi, Guyot & Thewell. Freedomways
66? 67? The New Nonviolence, David Dellinger. Undated. Published by SSOC.
1967 The Problem is Poverty, Don Jelinek. (Re: racism in the U.S. Department of Agriculture and economic racism.
1967Anti-Semitism and Black Power, James Baldwin & Ossie Davis. Freedomways, 1st Quarter, 1967
1967Speech to Black Caucus of NCNP by James Forman, September 2nd. (National Conference for New Politics held in Chicago.)
1967 Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence, Dr. Martin Luther King. Riverside Church, New York City, April 4, 1967. Address to Anti-War Marchers, Dr. Martin Luther King. New York City, April 15, 1967
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1967 The Other America, Dr. Martin Luther King. (1967)
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1967Journey to North Vietnam,, Diane Nash Bevel. Freedomways, 1967
1967 Negro Women in Freedom's Battles, Augusta Strong. (Originally published in Freedomways, Winter, 1967)
1967Cooperation, Not Competition; Community, Not the Individual, SNCC. (Statement on education and the Black community.)
1967 Rock Bottom (re SNCC, the Movement & Black Power), James Forman, SNCC
62-67 Father Nathaniel and the Greenwood Movement, Paul T. Murray. Orginially published in Journal of Mississippi History, 2010
1968? 1967 High Tide of Black Resistance, James Forman. 27-page page SNCC pamphlet.
1968 "I Have Been to the Mountain Top", Dr. Martin Luther King. (1968) Dr. King's last speech, Memphis, TN
See also Martin Luther King: Speeches & Writings
1968Memphis is Also America, Pat Watters. Nation
1968 Lessons of Laurel: Grassroots Organizing in the South, Bob Analavage & Dottie Zellner, SCEF.
1969Climbin' Jacob's Ladder: The life and Times of the Freedom Movement, Jack O'Dell, SCLC & Freedomways
1970 Developing Community Leadership, Ella Baker.
1971A Rock in a Weary Lan' ~ Paul Robeson's Leadership and "The Movement" in the Decade before Montgomery, Jack O'Dell, SCLC & Freedomways.

See also:

History & Timeline: 1951-1968 — Descriptions of Movement events.
Letters & Reports From the Field — By Movement veterans.
Documents — Movement publications, reports, organizing, strategy, etc.
Photo Album — Movement photos, posters, etc.
Our Thoughts — Retrospectives and later analysis by Movement veterans.
Our Stories — Memories, narratives & interviews of Movement veterans.
Our Thoughts — Analyses and commentaries by Movement veterans.
Discussions — Transcripts of group discussions by veterans.


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