[Terminology — In
the articles below, various authors use either "Summer Project," or "Freedom
Summer," or both interchangeably. This section uses "Freedom Summer" to refer
to the totality of Movement efforts in Mississippi over the summer of 1964,
including the "Mississippi Summer Project" organized and led by COFO/SNCC, and
the efforts of organizations such as Medical Committee for Human Rights
(MCHR), National Council of Churches (NCC) and other religious groups,
National Council of Negro Women (NCNW), and the various legal support
operations such as the ACLU, National Lawyers Guild (NLG), NAACP Legal Defense
& Education Fund, Lawyer's Constitutional Defense Committee (LCDC) and so
In most of these articles, the term "volunteer" refers to people from
out of state — Black and white — who
came to Mississippi for Freedom Summer, though of course, the many,
many thousands of Black Mississippians who participated were also
In most of these articles, the term "volunteer" refers to people from out of state — Black and white — who came to Mississippi for Freedom Summer, though of course, the many, many thousands of Black Mississippians who participated were also unpaid volunteers.]
Articles From CRMVets History & Timeline Articles by Freedom Movement Veterans Personal Memories of Freedom Summer Remembrances of Freedom School Students
Freedom Day in Hattiesburg (Jan) Louis Allen Murdered (Jan) Freedom Day in Canton (Feb) Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) Founded (April) Freedom Summer (June-August)
Freedom Summer 1964 [PDF] Mississippi Summer Project (June-Aug) [Sidebar] Organizational Stucture of Freedom Summer Lynching of Chaney, Schwerner, & Goodman Freedom Schools Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR) Founded The McGhees of Greenwood McComb — Breaking the Klan Seige MFDP Challenge to Democratic Convention Wednesdays in Mississippi Delta Ministry Founded in Mississippi (Sept) MFDP Congressional Challenge (Nov '64-Sept '65) ASCS Elections — A Struggle for Economic Survival (Dec) MFDP Challenge to the Democratic Convention
Articles by Freedom Movement Veterans
Journey to Understanding: Four Witnesses to a Mississippi Summer, Nation. December 1964
"Introduction," Howard Zinn
"The Lawyer," William M. Kunstler
"The Minister," Beverly Allen Asbury
"The Educator," Richard J. Bernstein
Long Hot Summer in Mississippi & Letter From the South, Kitty Baker, WILPF. July 1964. Some Notes on Education, Charles Cobb, SNCC. Tired of Being Sick and Tired, Jerry DeMuth, SNCC. The Nation, June 1, 1964. (SNCC reprint) The Southern Front: 2 Weeks in Mississippi, Bell Gale (Jackson). (Village Voice) Life in Mississippi, Fannie Lou Hamer. (Freedomways.) Freedom Schools Concept and Organization, Staughton Lynd. (Freedomways.) A Parent Looks Beyond The Summer, William Mandel. (Campus CORE-Lator) Bob Moses Speech to National Guardian Dinner, November. Tremor in the Iceberg: The Mississippi Summer, Eric Morton. (Freedomways) Mississippi 1964, Jo Ann Ooiman, CORE. (Fellowship) Freedom Day in Cleveland MS, Wally Roberts. July, 1964 All My Days, Wally Roberts. July, 1964 The Cat and Mouse Game, Elizabeth Sutherland (Betita Martinez), SNCC (reprint from The Nation, Sept 1964) The Mississippi Summer Project and the Closed Society, Joe White. (Campus CORE- Lator)
Personal Memories of Freedom Summer
In the summer of 1964 close to a thousand volunteers came to Mississippi in support of the Movement. They worked on projects across the state. Led by SNCC and CORE field secretaries, they helped Afro-Americans try to register to vote and join the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP), they taught in Freedom Schools, participated in community organizing, and endured the danger and hardship of civil rights work in the Deep South.
Most but certainly not all were college students or recent grads.
Most but certainly not all were from the North. Most but certainly not all were white.
They were warned of the danger they would face but they came anyway. Three were murdered by racist police and Klan, others were beaten, abused, and jailed. These are their stories:
Together, they were a living witness of solidarity with the courageous communities of Mississippi who were demanding freedom and equality for all.
Sandra Adickes History Lessons in Hattiesburg George Albertz Tells His Experiences as a Freedom Summer volunteer Chude Pam Parker Allen My Parents Said Yes!"
Why I Am Going to Mississippi
Would You Marry One?
Loneliness in the Circle of Trust
Watching the Iris Grow
Corinne Freeman Barnwell Mass Meetings & New Orlans Freedom School
My Freedom School Experiences — Mississippi & New Orleans
Heather Booth Memories From Shaw, Especially of the Hawkins Family Jennie Nancy Dishotsky Memories of the Freedom Summer Project Karen Duncan Remembrances of Mississippi Summer 1964 Gail Falk Remembering Freedom Summer Robert C. Hargreaves Mississippi Freedom Summer 1964 James Kates June & August, 1964 Adam Kline Greenwood Mississippi Charles Leck Riding on the Spirit of New Orleans Karol Nelson McMahan Fighting for Freedom in the Mississippi Sun Martin Nicolaus Mississippi Winter 1964-65 Fran O'Brien Faith and Activism Ron Ridenour Freedom Summer Orientation
On the Road to Freedom
Personal Diary, Moss Point Mississippi:
Wally Roberts Sheriff Capps & the Shaw Freedom School Larry Rubin A Walk in Holly Springs: 1964 Jonathan Steele Summer of Hate Roy Torkington Itta Bena and Elsewhere Bob Weil A Faulkner Tale Mark Weiss Interview Bright Winn Mrs. Magruder Grenville Whitman Mississippi Summer 1964
If you were a volunteer, send us your story for posting here. You can email photocopies to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Remembrances of Freedom School Students
Jacqulyn Reed Cockfield Zellie Rainey Orr Emily Rembert
If you were a Freedom School student, send us your remembrance for posting here. You can email it to: email@example.com.
Documents From Freedom Summer Letters From Mississippi Freedom Summer Mississippi ~ Into the Storm (Articles 1955-1963) Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) (Articles) McComb Mississippi Incidents & Events Mississippi Movement web links Freedom Summer Web Links Mississippi Movement for books.