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Southern Freedom Movement Web Links

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

NOTICE — This list of web information sources is provided for research purposes only. Inclusion in this list does not imply any kind of agreement, approval, or endorsement of a particular website by Civil Rights Movement Veterans.

See also:
Movement Bibliography
Museums, Academic, Historic, & Government Centers
Organizations Active Today

~ A ~

Agriculture Stabilization & Conservation Service (ASCS) Elections

ASCS Elections — A Struggle for Economic Survival, 1964 (CRMVets)
ASCS Election Campaigns, 1965 (CRMVets)
Alabama ASCS Elections, 1966 — The Struggle Continues (CRMVets)
From Co-Ops to Pigford (CRMVets)
Dr. King, the Farmers Will Tell You..., (Don Jelinek)

Sumter County Blues (FSC-LAF)
ASCS - Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service (Civil Rights Digital Library)

See also Pigford v Glickman "Black Farmers Case"

Alabama Christian Movement Human Rights (ACMHR)

Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights Founded (CRMVets)

Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Birmingham Campaign (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Lesson Plan: The Children's crusade ... (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Fred Shuttlesworth (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (Teachers Domain)
Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights (Encyclopedia of Alabama)
African-Americans in Birmingham, Protest ... 1956-58 (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
African Americans Campaign ... 1963 (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

See also sections covering:

Birmingham Movement
Fred Shuttlesworth
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Alabama Movement

Alabama Governor Wallace Takes Office, 1963 (CRMVets)
The Mailman's March (Murder of William Moore) (CRMVets)
Standing In the Schoolhouse Door, 1963 (CRMVets)
Savage Repression in Gadsden AL, 1963 (CRMVets)
Repression and Resistance in Tuscaloosa, 1964 (CRMVets)
Alabama ASCS Elections, 1966 — The Struggle Continues (CRMVets)
SNCC Organizing Presence in Alabama: A Partial Timeline, (Gwen Patton)

Modern Civil Rights Movement in Alabama (Encyclopedia of Alabama)
Civil Rights Movement Unit (Teacher Resources ~ ADAH)
SPLC Civil Rights Memorial (Southern Poverty Law Center)
Alabama Civil Rights Trail (Alabama Tourism Dept.)
Unseen. Unforgotten (Birmingham News)
African-Americans in Birmingham, Protest ... 1956-58 (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
African Americans Campaign ... 1963 (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

See also individual sections covering:

Alabama Christian Movement Human Rights
Birmingham Movement
Assasination of Jonathan Daniels
Freedom Rides, 1961
Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO)
Jimmy Lee Jackson Murdered
Autherine Lucy vs University of Alabama
Viola Luizzo Murder
Montgomery Bus Boycott
Rosa Parks
Selma Voting Rights Campaign & March to Montgomery
Fred Shuttlesworth
Tuskegee Merchant Boycott

Albany, Americus, & SW Georgia Freedom Movements 1961-1964

Albany GA, Movement, 1961-1962 (CRMVets)
"Seditious Conspiracy" in Americus GA, 1963 (CRMVets)
Federal "Jury Tampering" Frameup in Albany GA, 1963 (CRMVets)
Integrating Americus High School (CRMVets)
Albany, Georgia, Vincent Harding & Staughton Lynd. Crises, 1963.
The Bloody Battleground of Albany (Slater King ~ Freedomways, 1964)
Gambler's Choice in Georgia (C.B. King campaign), Peter de Lissovoy. Nation
My Family The Movement & Me by Cathy Cade
Report From Albany, Ga. (Harvard Crimson)
Report From Albany (Harvard Crimson)

Albany Civil Rights Movement Institute
Americus-Sumter County Movement Remembered Committee (ASCMRC)
1961 Civil Rights Activists a Celebration of ASC Students (Albany State University)
Albany Movement (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Albany Movement (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Rev. R.L. Freeman (Koinonia Remembered ~ Koinonia Partners)
The Albany Movement ... (1961-62) (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Peace Campaigners Work for Civil Rights ... (1963) (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Mt. Zion Baptist Church (National Park Service)
A Faith Forged in Albany (This Far by Faith - PBS)
Integrating Carnegie Library [Albany] (Freedom On Film ~ UGA)
Evening March and Prayer Vigil [Americus] (Freedom On Film ~ UGA)
Integrating First Methodist Church [Americus] (Freedom On Film ~ UGA)
Trailways Lunch Counter Sit-In (Freedom On Film ~ UGA) [Text-Video]
Albany Movement (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
William G. Anderson (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Americus Movement (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Civil Rights Protest Era in Americus, GA (The Times-Recorder)
Of Many Thing (Karen Smith ~ America)
Local Black History Chronology (Alan Anderson ~ sumtercountyhistory.com)
Stolen girls: ... (Donna M. Owens ~ Cocoa Lounge)
Perverted Justice (Harvard Crimson)

Americus-Sumter County Movement (FaceBook page)
If You Don't Go, Don't Hinder Me (Albany State Univ.)

See also JFK Library

"All Deliberate Speed" Ruling (AKA "Brown II") see School Desegregation

Arkansas Movement

Civil Rights Movement in 1960s Arkansas (C-SPAN)
Civil Rights Movement (Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture)

See also Little Rock School Desegregation

Atlanta Movement

Atlanta Sit-ins, 1960 (CRMVets)
SNCC Meets Kenyan Freedom Fighter in Atlanta, 1963 (CRMVets)
Atlanta Sit-ins & Mass Arrests, 1964 (CRMVets)

Atlanta in the Civil Rights Movement (Atlanta Higher Education)
Atlanta University District (National Park Service)
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Sit-ins: Atlanta, Ga. (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Heart of Atlanta/Pickrick trial (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Atlanta in the Civil Rights Movement (American Historical Association)
Atlanta Students Sit-in ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

Atlanta Student Movement (50th Anniversary)

~ B ~

Baltimore & Maryland

Baltimore Sit-ins & Protests (CRMVets)
Northwood Theatre — Baltimore, 1963 (CRMVets)

The Vintage Elm: Freedom Riders (Washington College)
Letters & Reports of Paul Cowan (Harvard Crimson)
CORE's Route 40 Project: ... (1961) (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

See also Cambridge MD Movement

Ella Baker

Who Was Ella Baker? (Ella Baker Center for Human Rights)
Ella Baker As I Knew Her (Casey Hayden - Social Policy)
Ella Baker (SNCC 1960-1966)
Ella Baker (Americans Who Tell the Truth)
Ella Baker 1903-1986 (North Carolina History Project)
Ella Josephine Baker (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Ella Baker Inspires the Student Movement [Audio] (Clay Carson ~ Stanford Univ.)

Baton Rouge Bus Boycott

Baton Rouge Bus Boycott (CRMVets)

The First Civil Rights Bus Boycott (National Public Radio)
The First Civil Rights Bus Boycott! (African American Registry)
Civil Rights Movement And Violence (Guyana Jounal)
Signpost to Freedom: Baton Rouge Bus Boycott (Louisiana Public Broadcasting)
Baton Rouge Bus Boycott of 1953 (Louisiana State Univ.)
Louisiana Bus Boycott Marks Its Page in Civil Rights History (L.A.Times)
African American Passengers Boycott ... (GNAD)
Bus Boycotts Timeline (Jackson Sun)

Bay Area Veterans of the Civil Rights Movement. (CRMVets)

Birmingham Movement 1956-1966

The Birmingham Campaign, 1963 (CRMVets)
Birmingham Church Bombing, 1963 (CRMVets)
Birmingham Shall be Free Some Day, Fred Shuttlesworth. Freedomways, Winter 1964.
The Meaning of Birmingham, Bayard Rustin. Liberation
Test for Nonviolence — Birmingham, Stephen Rose. Christian Century, May 14, 1963. Guilty Bystanders (Birmingham Church Bombing), James Farmer. Liberation

Birmingham Campaign (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Lesson Plan: The Children's crusade ... (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Birmingham Civil Rights Institute
Kelly Ingram Park (WSO Places, NPS)
Birmingham Demonstrations (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Freedom Now! (Pacifica Radio Archive transcript)
Test for Nonviolence — Birmingham, Stephen Rose. Christian Century
Birmingham (African American History!)
Fred Shuttlesworth (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Audrey Hendricks Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text+Video]
Joe Dickson Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text+Video]
Miriam McClendon (Teachers Domain) [Text+Video]
Birmingham Desegregation Campaign (Amistad Digital Resource)
African-Americans in Birmingham, Protest ... 1956-58 (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
African Americans Campaign ... 1963 (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
JFK Library

16th Street Baptist Church Bombing

16th Street Baptist Church Bombing (National Public Radio ~ NPR)
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church (WSO Places - NPS)
Birmingham Bombing...) (Civil Rights Digital Library)
In Memory of Four Little Girls (UseekUfind.com)
Sixteenth Street Baptist Church (Spartacus Educational - UK)
The FBI and Hoover (Crime Library ~ Court TV)

See also sections covering:

Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights
Fred Shuttlesworth
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Black Power

Black Power (Multiple articles)

Black Power (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ)
Black Power (SNCC 1960-1966)
"Black Power" Stokely Carmichael speech at U.C. Berkeley
Position Paper: The Basis of Black Power (The '60s Project)
Black Power (Spartacus Educational, UK)
Black Power (Norman Coombs ~ Black Experience in America)
How Stokely Carmichael Betrayed the Movement (Eric Etheridge/James Lawson)
Black Power (Amistad Digital Resource ~ Columbia University)

Bogalusa LA Movement

Confronting the Klan in Bogalusa With Nonviolence & Self-Defense (CRMVets)

Civil Rights Struggle (Southeastern Louisiana Univeristy)
By Any Means Necessary (Nation Magazine)
"Niggers Ain't Gonna Run This Town" (Seth Hague ~ Loyola Univ.)
Bogalusa Negro Community vs. Crown Colony (Calisphere ~ U.C. Berkeley))
Klan Murder Shines Light on Bogalusa, La. (Larry Keller ~ Southern Poverty Law Center)

See also sections covering:

Louisiana Movement
Deacons for Defense

Julian Bond

Julian Bond (Veterans Roll Call ~ CRMVets)

Julian Bond (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Julian Bond Biography (Clayton State University)
Julian Bond (SNCC 1960-1966)

Brown v. Board of Education see School Desegregation

~ C ~

Cambridge MD Movement & Gloria Richardson

Cambridge MD, 1962 (CRMVets)
Cambridge MD, 1963 (CRMVets)
Cambridge MD & the "White Backlash", 1964 (CRMVets)
Focus on Cambridge (Gloria Richardson ~ Freedomways, 1964)

"If This Town Don't Come Around... (Patrick Jones ~ Univ. Nebraska)
Gloria Richardson
Cambridge, MD, Cctivists Campaign ... (1962-1963) (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Cambridge CONVERGENCE: ... (Clayborne Carson ~ King Institute)
Maryland Town Recalls Racial Unrest in 1967 (Jacki Lyden ~ NPR)

See also Baltimore & Maryland

Stokely Carmichael see Kwame Ture

Chaney, Schwerner, Goodman Lynching

Lynching of Chaney, Schwerner & Goodman (CRMVets)
Neshoba Murders Case — A Chronology, Arkansas Delta Truth and Justice Center.
An Address by Mrs. Fannie Lee Chaney of Meridian, Mississippi (Freedomways.)

U. S. vs Cecil Price et al. (Famous Trials, Univ Missouri)
June 21, 1964: Neshoba County Killings (USM)
Mississippi Burning, 1964 (WhiteHouseTapes.org ~ Univ. Virginia)

See also Freedom Summer

Charlotte & Rock Hill Sit-ins

Rock Hill & Charlotte Sit-ins (J. Charles Jones)
Rock Hill SC, "Jail-No-Bail" Sit-ins, 1961 (CRMVets)
Charlottsville VA, Race & Place (Univ. of Virginia)
Rock Hill, SC, Students Sit-in for Civil Rights (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
University Students Campaign for ... Charlotte, NC (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

Children of the Movement. (Website for book about children of Movement leaders)

Citizenship Schools

Citizenship Schools (CRMVets)
Citizenship and Liberation (Septima Clark ~ Freedomways)

Interview with Dorothy Cotton (Center for Democracy & Citizenship)
Septima Poinsette Clark (1898-1987) (Sistermentors)
Dorchester Academy (National Park Service)

Civil Rights Acts

See also:

JFK Library
LBJ Library

Civil Rights Act — 1957

Civil Rights Act of 1957 (CRMVets)

Civil Rights Act of 1957 (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Civil Rights Act of 1957 Excerpts. (TeachingAmericanHistory.org)
Civil Rights Act of 1957 (Eisenhower Library)
Civil Rights Act of 1957 (Library of Congress)
Text of Civil Rights Act of 1957 (Thurgood Marshall Law Library ~ Univ. Maryland)

Civil Rights Act — 1960

Civil Rghts Act of 1960 (CRMVets)

Civil Rights Act of 1960 Excerpts. (TeachingAmericanHistory.org)

Civil Rights Act — 1964

Civil Rights Act Passes in the House (CRMVets)
Civil Rights Act — Battle in the Senate (CRMVets)
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (CRMVets)

Civil Rights Act of 1964 Text of, (TeachingAmericanHistory.org)
Civil Rights Act; July 2, 1964 (Yale Law School)
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (King ~ Stanford Univ)
Civil Rights Filibuster Ended (U.S. Senate)
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Teaching With Documents, CRA 1964 (U.S. National Archives)
Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Spartacus Educational - UK)
March on Washington and the Civil Rights Act (Amistad Digital Resource)

Voting Rights Act of 1965

Passage of the Voting Rights Act (CRMVets)

Voting Rights Act of 1965 Text of, (TeachingAmericanHistory.org)
Voting Rights Act of1965 (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ)
Introduction to Federal Voting Rights Laws (U.S. Dept. of Justice)
The Voting Rights Act of 1965 (U.S. Dept of Justice)
The Prize (National Park Service)
Voting Rights Act (U.S. National Archives)
LBJ Library
Voting Rights Act (Leadership Conference on Civil Rights)
The American Promise (LBJ's "We Shall Overcome" speech ~ LBJ Library)
Voting Rights Act (Encylopedia Brittanica)

See also sections covering:

Voting Rights
Voting Rights Act Renewal

Civil Rights Act — 1968 (AKA "Fair Housing Act")

Fair Housing Laws and Presidential Executive Orders (HUD)
Fair Housing Act (Full text, as amended) (DoJ)

Civil Rights Memorial. (Southern Poverty Law Center)

Civil Rights Movement — General, Overviews & Histories

History & Timeline (CRMVets)
The Movement (CRMVets)

Civil Rights Era Part 1 (Library of Congress)
Sit-ins, Freedom Rides, and Demonstrations Era Part 2 (Library of Congress)
Civil Rights History Project (American Folklife Center, Library of Congress
Racial Desegregation of Public Accommodations (National Park Service)
Racial Voting Rights (National Park Service)
"We Had Set Ourselves Free"... (Teaching Materials ~ Zinn Education Project)
Black Upsurge Against Racial Segregation (Teaching Materials ~ Zinn Education Project)
Eyes on the Prize (Website) (American Experience ~ PBS & Blackside)
Civil Rights Digital Library (Consortium of many libraries)
Eyes on the Prize Interviews (Washington Univ.) Transcripts of interviews
Publishing the Long Civil Rights Movement (Univeristy of North Carolina)
Civil Rights (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Civil Rights Era 1954-1975 (Amistad Digital Resource ~ Columbia Univ.)
Civil Rights Movement 1955-1965 (African American History!)
Civil Rights Movement (History.com)
Freedom on Film (Univ. of Georgia) [Text-Video]
American Civil Rights Movement [Lesson Plan] (Grade-8)
Civil Rights Special Collection (Teachers Domain)
Civil Rights Movement (Scholastic)
Civil Rights Movement: 1919-1960s (TeacherServe ~ National Humanities Center)
Civil Rights Movement (Black History: Encyclopedia Britannica)
History-628: Civil Rights Movement in the U.S.. (Univ. Wisconsin)
Let Justice Roll Down: CRM Through Film (Yale Teachers Institute)
SoJust.net (Social justice documents & resource materials)
Civil Rights Movement Unit (Teacher Resources ~ ADAH)
The Civil Rights Movement (History Now, Issue #8, 2006)
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture (NY Public Library)
Civil Rights Movement: Photographic History, [Photos & text]
100 Great Sites to Celebrate Black History Month (Bachelors Degrees Online)
Civil Rights Movement (U.K & U.S.)
Civil Rights in America (Gannett Co.)
Made From History: Civil Rights (James Carson)
Teaching the Modern Civil Rights Movement through Media Xosi Manuel Alvariqo ~ Miami Dade Public Schools)br> Lesson Plan Library - Civil Rights Movement (Discovery Education)

See also We Shall Overcome Historic Places

COINTELPRO see FBI Against the Movement

Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)

CORE Website
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) (Encyclopedia Britannica)
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Congress of Racial Equality (Audio) (Civil Rights Documentation Project ~ USM)
Congress of Racial Equality (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Harlen CORE, History
CORE NYC (NY CORE Chapters)

See also James Farmer

Council of Federated Organizations (COFO)

Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) Formed (CRMVets)

Story of COFO Part 1 and Part 2 (Bay Area Friends of SNCC Newsletter)
Council of Federated Organizations (COFO) (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)

See also Mississippi Movement

~ D ~

Vernon Dahmer

Doing Something About Dahmer (Southern Poverty Law Center)
32 Years to Justice (Sandra Peters ~ Response - United Methodist Women)
Former KKK Leader Convicted of 1966 Murder (CNN)
NCC Officials Relieved by Verdict in Mississippi Murder Case (NCC)

See also Martyrs of the Movement

Jonathan Daniels

Jonathan Daniels (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Long Train Runnin' (Rose Marie Berger ~ Sojourners Magazine)
Murder of Jonathan Daniels (White House Tapes)

See also Martyrs of the Movement

Danville VA Movement 1963

Danville VA, Movement (CRMVets)

Danville (Virginia Historical Society)
Mapping Local Knowledge: Danville, Va. (Averett Univ.)
Danville Civil Rights Demonstrations of 1963 (Encylopedia Virginia)
Danville Civil Rights Movement (Virginia Center for Digital History)
Interview Dr. Joyce Glaise (Virginia Commonwealth Univ.)
Interview Dr. Milton Reid (Virginia Commonwealth Univ.)
Danville Community Campaigns ... 1963 (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Guide to ... Danville Civil Rights Case Files (Library of Virginia)

Deacons for Defense and Justice

Armed Defense Interview With Charles Sims (Bogalusa, LA) 1965
By Any Means Necessary (Mike Marqusee ~ The Nation)
Deacons for Defense & Justice — FBI Files (Paperless Archives)
Henry Austan — Deacons for Defense & Justice (ChickenBones: A Journal)
"Niggers Ain't Gonna Run This Town" (Seth Hague ~ Loyola Univ.)
Deacons for Defense and Justice (blackmanspirit)

See also sections covering:

Bogalusa Movement
Louisiana Movement

Durham, NC, Movement

Royal Ice Cream Sit-in — Durham, 1957 (CRMVets)
Durham Sit-ins and Protests, 1960-61 (CRMVets)
Freedom Highways in Durham and Greensboro, 1962 (CRMVets)
Mass Action in Durham (1963)

Durham Civil Rights Timeline (Duke University)
Civil Rights Heritage (Durham Public Library)
Durham Students Sit-in ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
African American Citizens Campaign (1963) (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Campaign for Integration in Durham, 1963 (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
NC Finally Recognizes Pre-Woolworth Sit-Ins In 1957 (The Raleigh Telegram)

See also North Carolina Movement

~ E ~

Medgar & Myrlie Evers

Medgar Evers Assassination, 1963 (CRMVets)
Medgar's Funeral & End of Jackson Movement, 1963 (CRMVets)

Medgar & Myrlie Evers Institute

Jackson, Mississippi by Hunter Bear (John Salter)
Legacy of Medgar Evers (National Public Radio ~ NPR)
Myrlie Evers-Williams (NAACP)
Medgar Evers (NAACP)
Medgar Wiley Evers (Arlington National Cemetary)
Medgar Evers and the Origin of the Civil Rights Movement in Mississippi (MHS)
Leadership Lessons of Medgar Evers (M.J O'Brien)

Assasination
Assassination of Medgar Evers (Civil Rights Documentation Project ~ USM)
Martyrs of the Movement
41 Lives for Freedom

See also: LBJ Library

~ F ~

James Farmer

James Farmer (Spartacus Educational - UK)
James Farmer and the Freedom Rides (Teachers Domain) [Text-Video]
LBJ Library

Fayette County TN Tent City

Tent Cities of Fayette and Haywood Counties (Tenn. State Univ)
Tent City Timeline (Jackson Sun, Jackson TN)
"Tent City" (Jackson Sun, Jackson TN)
"Tent City," Tennessee (Univ. of Tennessee at Martin)
Fayette County, African Americans Form Tent City ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Against the Movement

FBI's COINTELPRO Targets the Movement (CRMVets)
Hoover Tries to Destroy Dr. King (CRMVets)

COINTELPRO — The Senate Report Vol 3. (Internet Archive Foundation)
FBI's Vendetta Against Martin Luther King (excerpt from The Lawless State)
CRM Unlawful Surveillance, Intimidation, & Harassment (Tracked in America)
COINTELPRO: FBI Domestic Intelligence Activities (Brian Glick)
COINTELPRO: The FBI Papers (WhatReallyHappened.com)
COINTELPRO: Federal Bureau of Intimidation (Howard Zinn)

Get Grandpa's FBI File (Obtain files using Freedom of Information Act.)

Federation of Southern Cooperatives

Federation of Southern Cooperatives (home page)
Federation of Southern Cooperatives (Website Campesino)

Florida Movements

Civil Rights Movement in Florida (University of South Florida)
Florida Civil Rights Oral Histories (University of South Florida)
Images of the Civil Rights Movement in Florida (Florida Memory)
Tallahassee Students Sit-in... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Univ.)
Florida's Civil Rights Movement ... (Scott Fields) [Lesson Plan]

See also sections covering:

Harry & Harriette Moore Murder
St. Augustine Movement
Tallahassee Bus Boycott

Jim Forman

Jim Forman (In Memory)
SNCC Founder James Forman (African American Registry)
James Forman (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Political Thought of James Forman (ChickenBones: A Journal)
James Forman Papers (Finding Aid to the Collection in the Library of Congress)

Freedom Ballot — Mississippi

Freedom Ballot in MS (CRMVets)

Freedom Ballot (SNCC 1960-1966)

See also sections covering:

Mississippi Movement
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party

Free Southern Theater

Free Southern Theater Founded (CRMVet ~ History & Timeline)
The Need for a Southern Freedom Theater (Derby, Gilbert, O'Neal ~ Freedomways, 1964)
Free Southern Theater (SNCC 50th Anniversary Conference)
Free Southern Theater: An Evaluation (Tom Dent ~ Freedomways, 1966)

Junebug Productions
Free Southern Theater Institute
Legacy of the Free Southern Theater (ChickenBones: A Journal)
Interview Kalamu ya Salaam (Jordan Green ~ American Poets Interviews)
Freedom School Curriculem (Education & Democracy)
Free Southern Theater (Amistad Research Center)
John O'Neal (Kirkland Project ~ Hamilton Univ.)
Gilbert Moses (Answer.com)

Freedom Rides

Freedom Rides (CRMVets ~ Timeline & History)
Freedom Rides (Multiple articles)
Freedom Rides, New South, 1961 (Multiple articles)
Freedom Riders Speak For Themselves, News & Letters, 1961. (Multiple Articles)
The White Problem, Albert Bigelow. Liberation, 1961.
Freedom Ride, David Fankhauser.
Siege of the Freedom Riders (Bernard Lafayette ~ NY Times, 2011)
In Pursuit of Freedom, William Mahoney. Liberation, 1961.
A Freedom Rider Speaks His Mind, Jimmy Mcdonald. Freedomways, 1961.
When MLK Thrilled L.A. — and Me, Ellen Broms. Zocalo

May 4, 1961: Freedom Rides (Univ. Southern Mississippi)
Sit-ins, Freedom Rides, & Demonstrations (Library of Congress)
Breach of Peace Portraits of the 1961 Mississippi Freedom Riders [video]
Freedom Riders Mug Shots (Eric Etheridge)
Freedom Rides (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Freedom Rides (African American History!)
Freedom Rides (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ)
Freedom Rides (SNCC)
The Freedom Riders, Then and Now (Smithsonian Inst.)
Freedom Rides (1961) (BlackPast.org)
James Farmer and the Freedom Rides (Teachers Domain) [Text-Video]
Diane Nash Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text-Video]
"..They're Going to Burn Us Up!" (Excerpt from Freedom Riders...)
The Freedom Riders (Life magazine photo exhibit)
Freedom Riders End Racial Segregation ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Freedom Rides of 1961 (Student site, National History Day, 2012)

Freedom Rides Commemorations

Freedom Riders 50th Anniversary (Chicago, IL)
Montgomery Bus Station (Alabama Historical Commission)
Little Rock, AR, 1961 Freedom Riders 50th Anniversary (UALR)
Oprah's Tribute to Freedom Riders (Oprah Winfrey Show)
Freedom Riders (American Experience ~ PBS)
House Resolution 1779 Honoring 50th anniversary of the Freedom Rides

Freedom Riders 40th Reunion
40 Years Later, Mississippi Lauds 'Freedom Riders (NPR)
Memorializing the Freedom Riders (Ellen Spears ~ Southern Spaces)
Traveling Down the Road to Freedom (Stephanie ~ Odyssey Student Trek)

Charlotta Janssen (Paintings inspired by Freedom Rides)

See also JFK Library

Freedom Schools

Freedom Schools (CRMVets)
Freedom School Curriculum 1964 (CRMVets)
Remembrances of Freedom School Students (CRMVets)

Freedom Schools: Concept And Organization (Staughton Lynd ~ Freedomways)
Platform: Freedom School Convention (Students)
Sandra Adickes History Lessons in Hattiesburg
Three Letters From a Freedom School Teacher

Freedom School Curriculum. (Education & Democracy)
Mississippi Freedom Summer & Its 30 Schools (ChickenBones: A Journal)
The McComb Freedom School Play (Univ. Illinois Urbana Champagne)
Freedom Schools (Children's Defense Fund)

San Francisco Freedom School

Freedom Songs

The Power of Freedom Songs (CRMVets)
SNCC Freedom Singers (SNCC 50th Anniversary Conference)

Music in the Civil Rights Movement (Bernice Johnson Reagon ~ PBS)
Bernice Johnson Reagon [Audio]
Bernice Johnson Reagon: Civil Rights song leader (Folkways ~ Smithsonian Inst.)
In Our Hands: Thoughts on Black Music, (Berenice Johnson Reagon)
Music of the Civil Rights Movement (Silver Burdett)
The Songs, (Univ. Illinois)
Protest Songs: We Shall Overcome (Lift Every Voice ~ Univ. Virginia)
People Get Ready: Music and the Movement (Brian Ward ~ History Now)
Freedom Songs of the Civil Rights Movement (Lesson plan ~ LEARN NC!)
Songs of the Civil Rights Movement (History Now) [Audio]
A Freedom Singer Shares The Music Of The Movement (NPR) [Text & Audio]
Songs and the Civil Rights Movement (King Institute ~ Stanford University)

Freedom songs today:

Songs of Freedom and Struggle (People's Music Network)
Freedom Song Network (FSN)
Songs of Freedom (TV show)

See also Poetry

Freedom Summer

Freedom Summer (CRMVets)
Freedom Summer Articles by Movement Veterans (CRMVets ~ Multiple Articles)
Documents From Freedom Summer (CRMVets)
"Letters From Mississippi," by Elizabeth Sutherland Martinez
Life in Mississippi, Fannie Lou Hamer. (Freedomways.)
Tremor in the Iceberg: The Mississippi Summer, Eric Morton. (Freedomways)

Freedom Summer Digital Collection (Wisconsin Historical Society)

Freedom Summer (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
1964: Freedom Summer (Univ. Southern Mississippi)
Freedom Summer (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Running Summary of Incidents (USM)
Mississippi Freedom Summer Digital Collection (Miami University [Ohio])
LBJ & Sen. Eastland on Mississippi Burning Murders (White House Tapes)
Freedom Summer: A New Voter Bob Moses (Boston Latin School)
Letters From Participants (America Firsthand)
Oh Freedom Over Me (American RadioWorks)
Mississippi & Freedom Summer (African American History!)
Three who gave their lives By Les Bayless (People's Weekly World)
Tense Times Jane Adams (Southern Illinois Univ.)
Mississippi Summer 1964 (Gren Whitman ~ Progressive Review)
Images of Hate & Hope (Ted Polumbaum photos ~ Newseum)
Mississippi Summer Freedom Project (some letters from)
Robert Moses Archive [photo collection] (Boston Latin School)
Mississippi Freedom Summer (Amistad Digital Resource ~ Columbia University)
Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired (Student site, 3rd place, National History Day, 2012)

Mississippi Freedom Summer 50th, The Movement Forward. Jackson, MS. June 25-29, 2014
How Mississippi Freedom Summer Can be Best Honored (Mary King ~ Waging Nonviolence)

See also sections covering:

Mississippi Movement
Freedom Schools

Friends of SNCC

The Movement Friends of SNCC Newspaper 1965-70 (Farmworkers)
Bay Area Friends of SNCC Newsletter (January 1965)
Bay Area Friends of SNCC Newsletter (February 1965)
Bay Area Friends of SNCC Newsletter (March 1965)

See also Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

~ G ~

Georgia Movement

Civil Rights Movement (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Augusta Movement (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Freedom on Film Civil Rights in Georgia (Univ. of Georgia)
Augusta (Freedom on Film ~ Univ. Georgia)

See also individual sections covering:

Albany, Americus, & SW Georgia Movements
Atlanta Movement

Andrew Goodman see Chaney, Schwerner, Goodman Lynching

Greensboro Sit-ins & Protests

First Southern Sit-in, Greensboro NC, 1960 (CRMVets)
Freedom Highways in Durham and Greensboro, 1962 (CRMVets)
Mass Action in Greensboro, 1963 (CRMVets)

International Civil Rights Center and Museum (Greensboro)
Greensboro Sit Ins: Launch of a Movement (Greensboro News-Record)
Greensboro Woolworth Building (National Park Service)
Greensboro Lunch Counter Sit-In (Library of Congress)
Sit-ins, Freedom Rides, & Demonstrations (Library of Congress)
Greensboro Voices (Univ. North Carolina) 125 interviews
Sit-ins: Greensboro, N.C. (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Sit-Ins (African American History!)
First Sit-in on February 1, 1960 (SNCC 1960-1966)
Sitting for Justice (Smithsonian Museum of American History)
February One: Story of Greensboro Four ([IndependentLens PBS)
Beginning: Students Sit-In in Greensboro (ChickenBones: A Journal)
Greensboro, NC, Students Sit-in ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Desegregation of Greensboro Businesses, 1962-1963 (UNC Greensboro)
Greensboro Sit-Ins at Woolworth's, February-July 1960 (UNC Greensboro)
February One (website for the film)

See also North Carolina Movement

Greenwood MS Movement

Mississippi Voter Registration — Greenwood, 1962 (CRMVets)
Greenwood Food Blockade, 1962 (CRMVets)
Marching For Freedom in Greenwood, 1963 (CRMVets)

Mississippi & Freedom Summer (African American History!)
"Crawl Space" (Boston Latin School)

Grenada MS Movement (1967)

Grenada MS, Movement (CRMVets)

~ H ~

Fannie Lou Hamer

Interview: Life in Mississippi, Fannie Lou Hamer. (CRMVets)
Oral History — Fannie Lou Hamer Transcript (USM)

Fannie Lou Hamer (ROAR International)
The Hamer Institute
Fannie Lou Hamer. Web biography.
Fannie Lou Hamer (Woman A Week Archives)
Long Road to Freedom — A Play (Scholastic)
Fannie Lou Hamer Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text-Video]
Testimony - Democratic National Convention (American RadioWorks)
Sick and Tired of Being Sick and Tired (YouTube video by high school students)
Fannie Lou Hamer: Civil Rights Activist (Mississippi Historical Society)
Ms. Hamer's Work (Social Justice Movements ~ Columbia Univ.)

Hattiesburg MS Movement

Freedom Day in Hattiesburg (CRMVets)
Oral History, Raylawni Branch (USM)

Freedom Summer Journal of Sandra Adickes (USM)
"Crawl Space" (Boston Latin School)

See also Mississippi Movement

Highlander Center

Highlander Center (Highlander Center website)

Dorothy Height see National Council of Negro Women & Dorothy Height

~ I ~

~ J ~

Jimmy Lee Jackson

The Shooting of Jimmy Lee Jackson (CRMVets)
Jimmy Lee Jackson (Spartacus Educational - UK)

See also:
Martyrs of the Movement
41 Lives for Freedom

Jackson, MS, Movement

Tougaloo Nine and Jackson State Protest, 1961 (CRMVets)
Jackson MS, Boycotts, 1962 (CRMVets) Jackson Sit-in & Protests, 1963 (CRMVets)
Medgar's Funeral & End of Jackson Movement, 1963 (CRMVets)
Jackson, Mississippi by Hunter Bear (John Salter)
Interview ~ Hunter Bear (John Salter)
Leadership Lessons of Medgar Evers (M.J O'Brien)

When Youth Protest: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (MS Hist. Society)

Jews & the Civil Rights Movement

Jews, Religion, & the Movement (A Discussion)

Jewish involvement in the Civil Rights movement (MyJewishLearning.com)
From Swastika to Jim Crow (PBS)
Civil Rights (Religious Action Center ~ Reform Judaism)
Jews and the Civil Rights Movement curriculum grades 8-12 (Jewish Women's Archive)
Jewish Women in Civil Rights (Jewish Women's Archive)
Civil Rights Movement in the United States (Jewish Women's Archive)

"Jim Crow" see Segregation — the "Jim Crow" System

Vernon Johns

Vernon Johns, Life and Times (Vernon Johns Society)

~ K ~

Clyde Kennard

Clyde Kennard Framed and Jailed in MS (CRMVets)
Clyde Kennard (Ron Hollander ~ CRMVets)

Clyde Kennard (Hamer Institute)
1957: Clyde Kennard [Audio] (Univ. Southern Mississippi)
"The Saddest Story of the Whole Movement" (Mississippi Dept. Archives & History)
New Portrait Honors Clyde Kennard, Forgotten Civil Rights Pioneer (Huffington Post)

Martin Luther King (1929-1968)

MLK Overviews, Biographies, & Misc.
DrMartinLutherKingJr.com
Martin Luther King Biography (Nobel Prize Museum)
All About Martin Luther King (Enchanted Learning) (Students K-12)

Tax Fraud Charges Against Dr. King, see New York Times v Sullivan

See also:
Martyrs of the Movement
41 Lives for Freedom
JFK Library

MKL Academic & Historic Centers

M.L. King Research & Education Institute (Stanford Univ.)
King Center, Atlanta GA
MLK National Historic Site (National Park Service)

MLK Awarded Nobel Prize

Nobel Peace Prize 1964 (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Award (Nobel Prize Museum)
Dr. King's Acceptance Speech (Dr. King ~ NobelPrize.org)
Quest for Peace and Justice Nobel Lecture (Dr. King ~ NobelPrize.org)

Opposes Vietnam War

Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence, Riverside Church, (1967)
Casualties of the War in Vietnam (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Audio Excerpts from MLK's Vietnam War speech (BenFrank.net)
MLK's Call for Peace as Racial Justice Still Rings (Michelle Chen ~ Common Dreams)

MLK Assasination in Memphis

Assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr. (King Institute ~ Stanford University)
National Civil Rights Museum.
Court Documents - MLK & Sanitation Workers (National Archives)
Lorrain Hotel (National Park Service)
Dr. King's Assassination (Civil Rights Digital Library)
An Act of State: The Execution of MLK. (William F. Pepper)
Assassination of MLK Was An Act of State (Book review)
After Three Decades, Another Verdict (James Douglass)
A Shot Rings Out in the Memphis Sky (Neda ~ Odyssey Student Trek)
Martin Luther King Jr. Assassinated (Finding Dulcinea)

MLK Speeches

"Birth of a New Nation" Montgomery (1957)
Letter from Birmingham Jail (1963)
"I Have a Dream" speech, March on Washington (1963)
Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech (1964) (King Institute ~ Stanford University)
"Beyond Vietnam: A Time to Break Silence", Riverside Church, (1967)
Where Do We Go From Here (1967), (King Institute ~ Stanford University)
The Drum Major Instinct (1968), (King Institute ~ Stanford University)
"I Have Been to the Mountain Top", (last speech) (1968)

Legacy and Analysis of Martin Luther King

Martin Luther King You Don't See On TV (Media Beat ~ FAIR)
Myths of Martin Luther King (Marcus Epstein)

Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

Ku Klux Klan (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Ku Klux Klan (Anti-Defamation League ~ ADL)

See also White Citizens Council

~ L ~

Legal Organizations

National Lawyers Guild
NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund (AKA the "Inc Fund")
Lawyer's Constitutional Defense Committee (LCDC) (1964-1976)

Herbert Lee

Herbert Lee Murdered (CRMVets)

Herbert Lee (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Amite County (ChickenBones: A Journal)
Work of the Civil Rights Division (John Doar FSU Law Review)
Oh Freedom Over Me (Page 4) (American RadioWorks)

See also:
Martyrs of the Movement
41 Lives for Freedom

John Lewis

Congressman John Lewis (U.S. House of Representatives)
John Lewis (Spartacus Educational - UK)

Little Rock School Desegregation

The Little Rock Nine (CRMVets)

Little Rock School Desegregation (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Warriors Don't Cry: ... (Teaching Materials ~ Zinn Education Project)
"A School Year Like No Other" ... (Teaching Materials ~ Zinn Education Project)
Crisis at Central High (National Park Service)
Little Rock Central High School Integration (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Civil Rights: The Little Rock School Integration Crisis (Eisenhower Library)
Melba Pattillo Beals Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text+Video]
School Integration in Little Rock, Arkansas (African American History!)
Little Rock (Spartacus Educational - UK)
On the Front Lines With the Little Rock Nine (PBSKids)
Crises in Little Rock (American RadioWorks)
Crisis in Little Rock (Center for Technology and Teacher Education)
Melba Pattillo Beals (Scholastic)
Arkansas Bars "Little Rock Nine" From School (Finding Dulcinea)

Warriors Don't Cry: (Rethinking Schools Online)
Little Rock 40 Years Later (New York Times)
Opening Doors and Minds (PBS Newshour)
2, 4, 6, 8: I Think You Best Desegregate! (Jennifer ~ Odyssey Student Trek)

See also Arkansas Movement

Viola Liuzzo Murder

Viola Liuzzo (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Viola Liuzzo (Unitarian Universalists)
Martyrs of the Movement

Louisiana Movement

Baton Rouge Sit-ins & Student Strike, 1960 (CRMVets)
Baton Rouge Student Protests, 1961 (CRMVets)
"Criminal Anarchy" in Louisiana, 1962 (CRMVets)
Man-Hunt in Plaquemine LA, 1963 (CRMVets)
Deacons for Defense & Justice Founded (CRMVets)
Confronting the Klan in Bogalusa With Nonviolence & Self-Defense (CRMVets)

A House Divided Teaching Guide (SIER ~ Tulane Univ.)
Baton Rouge Students Sit-in ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

See also individual sections covering:

Baton Rouge Bus Boycott
Bogalusa LA Movement
Deacons for Defense
New Orleans Movement & School Desegregation

Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO)

What Would it Profit a Man to Have the Vote and Not be Able to Control it?, Courtland Cox
We Intend to Take Over Lowndes County, Stokely Carmichael. The Movement
How the Black Panther Party Was Organized, John Hulet
Integration is Completely Irrelevant to Us, Stokely Carmichael. The Movement
Lowndes County Election Fraud ~ November 1966, Gwen Patton. Liberator.
Lowndes County Freedom Organization, Jack Minnis.
Making the Revolution — In One County Review of Bloody Lowndes (Jo Freeman)
Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO) Political Education Primer
Interview Gloria House (YouTube) [Video]

Lowndes County Freedom Organization (Encylopedia of Alabama)
Modern Civil Rights Movement in Alabama (Encylopedia of Alabama)
Lowndes County Freedom Organization (BlackPast.org)
Interview with John Hulett (Eyes on the Prize ~ PBS)
Making the Revolution — in One County (Book Review ~ Jo Freeman)

Autherine Lucy vs University of Alabama

Autherine Lucy at the Univ. Alabama (CRMVets)

Autherine Lucy and the University of Alabama (Library of Congress)

~ M ~

Malcolm X

Brother Malcolm
Official Web Site of Malcom X
Malcolm X (King Institute ~ Stanford University)
The Ballot or the Bullet (Social Justice Speeches)
How New York Times Distorted Malcolm on Self-Defense (Walter Lippmann)
Malcolm X: Black Nationalism (Teachers Domain) [Text+Video]
Sonia Sanchez: The Meaning of Malcolm X (Teachers Domain) [Text+Video]

March on Washington 1963

March on Washington for Jobs & Freedom (CRMVets)
March on Washington (Multiple articles)
Remembrances of participants (CRMVets)
March on Washington Documents
The Message Behind the March (Charlie Cobb ~ Washington Post, 8/28/13)

March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (King Institute ~ Stanford)
Freedom's Ring, Interactive/audio (King Institute ~ Stanford)

March on Washington (Civil Rights Digital Library)
1963 March on Washington [Audio] (WGBH Boston)
"We Stood on a Height" Pictures & history. (Abbeville Press)
March on Washington (Spartacus Educational)
March on Washington (CORE)
March on Washington (SNCC 1960-1966)
Claiming & Teaching the 1963 MoW (Bill Fletcher ~ Teaching for Change)
MoW Online Teaching Quiz (Teaching For Change)
Forgotten Radical History of the (MoW) (William Jones ~ Dissent Spring 2013)
March On Washington (Bergie Lustig - march participant)
March on Washington & Civil Rights Act (Amistad Digital Resource)
MLK Delivers "I Have a Dream" Speech (Finding Dulcinea)
A Defense For Washington March, (Harvard Crimson)
March on Washington (African American History!)

Program at the Lincoln Memorial
Speech of John Lewis
"I Have a Dream", speech by Martin Luther King

Can Dreams Come True? (Neda ~ Odyssey Student Trek)
Commemoration of the March on Washington (ChickenBones: A Journal)

See also JFK Library

March to Montgomery see Selma Voting Rights Campaign

Martyrs of the Movement

41 Lives For Freedom

Maryland Movement see Baltimore & Maryland

Ruby McCollum Murder Trial

Murder Trial of Ruby McCollum (CRMVets)

Paramour Rights & Reparation Issues (C. Arthur Ellis, Black Commentator)
Case of Ruby McCollum (Time Magazine, Oct. 25, 1954)

McComb MS Movement

Voter Registration & Direct-Action in McComb MS (CRMVets)
McComb Mississippi Incidents & Events. (Multiple articles)

"The Crawl Space" (Boston Latin School)
McComb, Mississippi [Background to play] (Univ. Illinois)
Mississippi & Freedom Summer (African American History!)
Amite County (ChickenBones: A Journal)
Robert Moses (Spartacus Educational)
Civil Rights In Mississippi Digital Archive (USM):
     Oral history of Mr. Nathaniel H. Lewis
     Oral history of Rev. C.C. Bryant
     Response to the 13th and 14th bombings in McComb
Work of the Civil Rights Division (John Doar FSU Law Review)
McComb Legacies
Freedom Song (Film) (Turner Le@rning - TNT):

Media Coverage of the Movement

Reporting Civil Rights (Library of America)
TV News of Civil Rights Era (Univ. Virginia)
Television News and the Civil Rights Struggle: ... (William Thomas, ~ Southern Spaces)
"Race Beat" panel discussion [video] (UNC School of Journalism)

Medical Committee for Human Rights (MCHR)

MCHR & Manual for Volunteers (CRMVets Document Collection)
March on Washington, 1963 (PMC ~ National Institutes of Health)

Memphis Garbage Workers Strike

Court Documents - MLK & Sanitation Workers (National Archives)
Memphis Sanitation Workers Strike (Civil Rights Digital Library)
At the River I Stand (California Newsreel)
Memphis Sanitation Strike (AFT)
A Shot Rings Out in the Memphis Sky (Neda ~ Odyssey Student Trek) Memphis, TN, Sanitation Workers Strike ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

Meredith Desegregates 'Ole Miss, 1962

James Meredith Desegregates Ole Miss (CRMVets)

Integrating Ole Miss (JFK Library)
'Ole Miss Integration (Civil Rights Digital Library)
James Meredith (Spartacus Educational)
Meredith Etc, a blog & small press

Ole Miss, 40 Years Later (National Public Radio ~ NPR)
Mississippi and Meredith Remember (CNN ~ 2002)

Meredith Mississippi March Against Fear, 1966

Black civil rights activist shot (BBC)
Meredith March (Spartacus Educational, UK)
Meredith Mississippi (by Jo Freeman)
Remembering the Meredith March (Ray Goldstein)
When Youth Protest: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (MS Hist. Society)

Military, Desegregation of

Committee Against Jim Crow in the Military (PBS)
Integration of the U.S. Army (Center of Military History)
60th Anniversary of the Integration of the Armed Forces (U.S. Army)

Miscegenation Laws Overturned

Loving v. Virginia (U.S. Supreme Court)
Unforgivable Blackness (For Teachers ~ PBS)

See also: Segregation — the "Jim Crow" System

Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)

Freedom Ballot in MS (CRMVets)
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party Founded (CRMVets)
MFDP Challenge to Democratic Convention (CRMVets)
MFDP Congressional Challenge (CRMVets)
Discussion: The Mississippi Movement & the MFDP (CRMVets)
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) (Multiple articles)
Mississippi Congressional Challenge, (Multiple articles)
COFO/MFDP Documents (CRMVets Documents Collection)

Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) (Univ. Southern Mississippi)
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) (King Institute ~ Stanford University)
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP) (SNCC 1960-1966)
Freedom Ballot (SNCC 1960-1966)
SNCC & MFDP (ROAR International)
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (Fact Index)
Fighting For the Soul of the Democratic Party (John Dittmer ~ Yes!)
Mississippi & Freedom Summer (African American History!)
MFDP: A Case Stude of Grass-Roots Politics (Leslie McLemore ~ UMass, Amherst)
Freedom Strategy ... Democratic National Convention, (Debbie Elliot, NPR)
"I Question America" — Remembering Hamer's ..., (Peter Dreier ~ Huffington Post)

Mississippi Freedom Labor Union (MFLU)

Mississippi Freedom Labor Union Founded (CRMVets ~ History & Timeline)
Greenville Air Force Base Occupied (CRMVets ~ History & Timeline)
Mississippi Freedom Labor Union Documents (CRMVets Document Collection)

Mississippi Freedom Labor Union (Social Justice Movements ~ Columbia Univ.)
Learn More About Mississippi Freedom Labor Union (Social Justice Movements ~ Columbia Univ.)

Mississippi Movement

Struggle for Voting Rights in Mississippi ~ The Early Years. (CRMVets)
Got To Thinking...The Movement in Holmes Co, MS., Sue Sojourner.
Life in Mississippi, Fannie Lou Hamer. (Freedomways.)
Politics of Necessity & Survival in Mississippi, Lawrence Guyot & Mike Thewell. Freedomways
Veterans of the Mississippi Civil Rights Movement

Oh Freedom Over Me (American RadioWorks)
Interview: Bob Moses (Oh Freedom Over Me ~ American RadioWorks)
State of Seige: Mississippi Whites and the CRM (American RadioWorks)
Freedom Summer (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ)
Mississippi & Freedom Summer (African American History!)
Bob Moses - Civil Rights (Boston Latin School)
Civil Rights in Mississippi Digital Archive (Univ. Southern Mississippi)
Voter Registration Laws in Mississippi (Freedom School Curriculum)
The Mississippi Power Structure (Freedom School Curriculum)
Hill Country Project (Local movement in Benton County)
Standing on My Sisters' Shoulders (Film) Women in the Movement.
ROAR (ROAR International)
Freedom Now! Archival project of Tougaloo College and Brown Univ..
Mississippi Civil Rights & Delta Blues Bookstore
Fighting For the Soul of the Democratic Party (John Dittmer ~ Yes!)
Work of the Civil Rights Division (John Doar FSU Law Review)
"Just the Meanest, Dirtiest, Low-Down Stuff That I've Ever Heard" (LBJ: White House Tapes)
When Youth Protest: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (MS Hist. Society)
JFK Library
Whites in the Land of the Blues (Jane Adams)
Mississippi Civil Rights Project (county by county Movement histories)
Leadership Lessons of Medgar Evers (M.J O'Brien)

See also individual sections covering:

Council of Federated Organizations (COFO)
Medgar Evers
Freedom Schools
Freedom Summer
Greenwood Movement
Grenada Movement
Fannie Lou Hamer
Hattiesburg Movement
Jackson Movement
Clyde Kennard Frameup
McComb Movement
Meredith Desegregation of 'Ole Miss
Meredith Mississippi March Against Fear
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
Mississippi Sovereignty Commission
Bob Moses
Voting Rights
Wednesdays in Mississippi

Chaney, Schwerner, Goodman Assasination
Herbert Lee Murder
Emmett Till Murder

Mississippi Sovereignty Commission

Mississippi Sovereignty Commission Online Archives (MS Archives & Library)
Mississippi State Sovereignty Commission: An Agency History (MS Hist. Society)
Mississippi Sovereignty Commission Files Opened (Refuse & Resist)
Notes on the Tangled MSC Legal Case (Hunter Bear ~ NAACP & SCEF)
Berkeley Free Speech Movement & the MSC (by Jo Freeman ~ SCLC)

Montgomery Bus Boycott

Montgomery Bus Boycott (CRMVets)
Organizing Before the Boycott by Jo Ann Robinson
Rosa Parks Discusses the Montgomery Bus Boycott, March 1956.
Report on Montgomery, Bayard Rustin, March 1956.
Montgomery Leader Tells His Story, Talk by E.D. Nixon. May, 1956. (WRL News)
White Support of the Montgomery Boycott, by Virginia Durr.
Back From 'Bama, Bayard Rustin. May, 1956. (WRL News)
Montgomery Bus Boycott — Biographic Skecthes (Trenholm State Archives)
Montgomery Story Comic Book (Fellowship of Reconciliation)
MIA Officers & Negotiation Committee During the Boycott
Even in the Face of Death, Bayard Rustin. Liberation, February, 1957.
First Boycott Leaflet (Womens Political Council)
Montgomery Bus Boycott (outline of)

Montgomery Bus Boycott (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ)
Browder v Gayle (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ)
Montgomery Bus Boycott (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Montgomery Bus Boycott (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Rosa Parks & the Montgomery Bus Boycott (Rosa Parks Facts)
Bus Boycott: Historical Documents (Teaching Tolerance ~ SPLC)
Browder v. Gayle (Univ. of Washington)
1956 Interview With Parks (Democracy Now ~ Pacifica Radio)
African Americans Boycott Buses for Integration ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
381 Days - Montgomery Bus Boycott Story (Smithsonian Institution) )
Montgomery Bus Boycott (National Archives at Atlanta)
Lesson 1: Taking a Stand (Alabama Department of Archives & History)
Montgomery Bus Boycott (African American History!)
Montgomery Bus Boycott (Amistad Digital Resource ~ Columbia University)
Montgomery Bus Boycott (LearningSite - UK)
They Changed the World (Montgomery Advertiser)
Rosa Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott (Academy of Achievement)
Montgomery Bus Boycott Begins (African American Registry)
Fightin' with Her Feet (Stephanie ~ Odyssey Student Trek)
Riding While Black/Walking While Black (Awele Makeba)
Supreme Court Outlaws Bus Segregation (Finding Dulcinea)

Teaching the Montgomery Bus Boycott: 50 Years Later (civilrightsteaching.org)

Montgomery, March to see Selma Voting Rights Campaign

Harry & Harriette Moore

Murder of Harry & Harriette Moore (CRMVets)

In Memory: Harry & Harriette Moore
Harry Moore (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Legacy of Harry T. Moore (PBS)
Life of Harry Tyson Moore
"Who Was Harry T. Moore? (Michael Browning, Palm Beach Post)

In Memory: Harry & Harriette Moore
Harry & Harriette Moore Memorial Website

Bob Moses

Bob Moses - Civil Rights (Boston Latin School)
The Civil Rights Work of Bob Moses (Lesson Plan) (NOW - PBS)
Robert Moses (Spartacus Educational)
Robert Moses Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text+Video]
Interview: Bob Moses (Oh Freedom Over Me ~ American RadioWorks)

Monroe NC Movement see Robert F. Williams...

The Movement Friends of SNCC Newspaper 1965-70 (Farmworkers)

Movement Veterans — Personal Websites
        Veteran's Roll Call Listings Veteran's Personal Websites
        Jane Adams
Thomas Madison Armstrong
George Elfie Ballis
Hunter Bear (John Salter)
Joan Browning
Cathy Cade
Ben Chaney
Dorothy Cotton
Ferd Eggan
Daphne Muse
David B. Fankhauser
Jo Freeman
Matt Herron
Julius Lester
Ralph E. Luker
Danny Lyon
Patti Miller
Ruby Nell Sales
Mark Satin
Robert Singleton
Bob Zellner
Hopi Court Place
Sun Mountain
Lair of Hunter Bear
Joan C. Browning
CathyCade.com
James Earl Chaney Foundation
Dorothy Cotton
Freedom Rides
JoFreeman.com
Take Stock - Images of Change
Julius Lester
Bleak Beauty
Keeping History Alive
Spirit House Project
Rdical Middle
Freedom Riders Reunion 2005

Music of the Movement see Freedom Songs

~ N ~

Diane Nash

An Ongoing Legacy of Resistance (Madison Times)
Diane Nash Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text-Video]
Nash, Diane (King Institute at Stanford Univ.)

Nashville Student Movement

Nashville Student Movement (CRMVets)

Nashville Sit-Ins (Linda Wynn, Tennessee State Univ.)
Civil Rights Movement in Nashville (Nashville Public Library)
Sit-ins: Nashville, Tenn. (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Nashville — We Were Warriors (A Force More Powerful ~ Film)
Diane Nash Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text-Video]
Nashville Students Sit-in ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)

NAACP (NAACP website)
Crises Online (NAACP magazine)

NAACP (Spartacus Educational - UK)
NAACP (Rise & Fall of Jim Crow ~ PBS)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (King Institute)
The Walter White Project (Alliance for Networking Visual Culture ~ USC)

Anti-NAACP Attacks, 1956-1964
Southern States Try to Destroy NAACP (CRMVets)

The South Counterattacks: The Anti-NAACP Laws (Walter Murphy)
Louisiana v NAACP (U.S. Supreme Court ~ FindLaw.com)
NAACP v Alabama (U.S. Supreme Court ~ FindLaw.com)
NAACP v Button [VA] (Cornell Law School)

NAACP Legal Defense & Education Fund ("Ink Fund")

National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) & Dorothy Height

National Council of Negro Women
National Council of Negro Women (About.com)
National Council of Negro Women (NCNW) (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ)
Dr. Dorothy I. Height (National Council of Negro Women)
Dorothy Height (About.com)
Dorothy Height (1912-2010) (Democracy Now)
The Depth Of Dorothy Height (Michel Martin ~ NPR)
Dorothy Height & Sexism of the Civil Rights Movement (Paul Delaney ~ The Root)
Dorothy Height (racematters.org)

See also Wednesdays in Mississippi

New Orleans Movement & School Desegregation

New Orleans Merchant Boycotts & Sit-ins, 1960 (CRMVets)
New Orleans School Desgregation, 1960 (CRMVets)
Freedom March in New Orleans, 1963 (CRMVets)

A House Divided Teaching Guide (SIER ~ Tulane Univ)
A Class of One — Interview With Ruby Bridges (Online News Hour - PBS)
New Orleans school integration (Civil Rights Digital Library)
The Education of Ruby Nell (by Ruby Bridges)
New Orleans Citizens Boycott for Civil Rights ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

Nonviolent Resistance

Nonviolent Resistance articles (CRMVets)

Civil Rights Movement And Violence (Guyana Jounal)
Interview with Malcolm X (Hartford Web Publishing)
Non-violent Resistance (Spartacus Educational, UK)
On Violence and Nonviolence: The CRM in Mississippi (MS Hist. Soc.)
SNCC & Non-Violence (SNCC 1960-1966)
We Shall Overcome (American Studies Online ~ UK)
Philosophies & Strategies — Non-Violence & Black Power (HistoryOrb.com)
Why Non-Violence Waned & Black Power Gained (HistoryOrb.com)
Nonviolence and the Quest for Civil Rights, discussion. (Kennedy Library)

Nonviolent Resistance in Today's World

A Force More Powerful (film, book, game, resources)
American Friends Service Committee (AFSC)
Albert Einstein Institution
Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR)
M.K. Gandhi Institute for Nonviolence
Institute for Study and Practice of Nonviolence
International Center on Nonviolent Conflict
A.J. Muste Memorial Institute
Nonviolence (Gene Sharp)
Nonviolence International
Nonviolence.org Web portal for nonviolence
Pace e Bene Nonviolence Service
Peace Brigades International (PBI)
Resource Center for Nonviolence.
Training for Change
War Resisters League
Why Civil Resistance Works The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict

North Carolina Movement

Black-Belt Thunder: North Carolina & SCEF (Hunter Bear)
Civil Rights Movement (North Carolina History Project)
Integration Sit-ins (UNC Chapel Hill)

See also sections covering:

Durham, NC, Movement
Greensboro Sit-ins

~ O ~

Oral Histories

List of Oral Histories collected by Shiela Michaels
Who Speaks for the Negro? (Vanderbilt Univ.). Audio interviews.
Oral History Bibliography (Civil Rrights Documentation Project ~ USM)
Mississippi Civil Rights Oral Histories (Civil Rights Digital Archive ~ USM)
Southern Oral History Project (Univerity North Carolina-Chapel Hill)
LBJ Library
Civil Rights History Project (American Folklife Center, Library of Congress)

See also Our Stories

Orangeburg SC Movement & Orangeburg Massacre of 1968

Student Protests & Boycotts — Orangeburg, SC, 1956 (CRMVets)
Mass Arrest of Student Protesters, Orangeburg, SC., 1960 (CRMVets)
Orangeburg SC, Freedom Movement, 1963 (CRMVets)

Orangeburg: Behind the Carolina Stockade (Tom Gaither ~ CORE)
SC State College (National Park Service)
All Star Bowling - Orangeburg Massacre (National Park Service)
Orangeburg, SC, Students Sit-in ... (1960) (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

Orangeburg Massacre Aanniversary (CNN)
Orangeburg Massacre 42nd Commemoration Ceremony (South Carolina State University)
Students Faced Water Hoses, Arrest in Downtown Orangeburg (Orangeburg Times & Democrat)

~ P ~

Rosa Parks

Freedom Hero: Rosa Parks (Francisca Stewart, 4th Grade)
Rosa Parks (Time 100, Times Magazine)
Rosa Parks "How I Fought for Civil Rights" (Scholastic) (Grades 7-8)
Rosa Parks: Pioneer of Civil Rights (Academy of Achievement)
Rosa Parks: Woman Who Changed a Nation (grandtimes.com)
Why do you push us around? (Library of Congress)
How One Person Made a Difference (National Network for Child Care)
Rosa Parks Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text+Video]
On Rosa Parks' 100th Birthday, Recalling Her Rebellious Life (Democracy Now!)

Lemuel Penn

Lemuel Penn (Arlington National Cemetary)
Lemuel Penn Murder (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Highway 172 Revisited (Athens Banner-Herald)
Lemuel Penn Murdered Near Athens in 1964 (Another Voice From Oconee County)
Remembrance for Lemuel Penn (Madison County GA Journal)

See also:
Martyrs of the Movement
41 Lives for Freedom

Pigford v Glickman "Black Farmers" Case

Pigford Lawsuit Information (FSC-LAF)
Black Land Loss & Land Acquisition (FSC-LAF)
African American Farmers & Civil Rights (Journal of Southern History)
Office of the Monitor (pigfordmonitor.org)
Overview, Problems and ... the Pigford Case (J.L. Chestnut)
Black Farmers Discrimination Litigation Settlement (Pigford II)
The Pigford Cases: ... (Congressional Research Service)

See also Agriculture Stabilization & Conservation Service (ASCS) Elections

Photos by Jo Freeman. Movement photos by SCLC staff member Jo Freeman.

Poll Taxes

Poll tax as a form of social control ... (William Long ~ Atlanta Univ.
Suffrage in the South (George Stoney, Survey Graphic)
Injustice of the Poll Tax and ... (Andrew Kirshenbaum ~ FairVote)
Techniques of Direct Disenfranchisement ... (Geography of Race ~ U Mich.)
24th Amendment: commentary (DeafVote.com)
Harper v. Virginia Board of Elections (Cornell Law School)

Poor People's Campaign and Resurrection City

Poor People's Campaign (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ)
Poor People's Campaign (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Poor Peoples Campaign Arrives in D.C! (African American Registry)
History of Poor People's Campaign (Poor People's Campaign)
Poor People's Campaign of 1968 and Resurrection City (Art McGee)
Dr. King's march to Occupy D.C. for economic justice (Chris Kromm ~ Facing South)
Unfinished Business of the Poor People's Campaign (AFSC)
Dateline: Resurrection City (Sharon Shahid ~ Newseum, Washington DC)
Poor People's Campaign: ... for Economic Justice (Terry Messman ~ RP&E)
History of Poor Peoples Campaign (Poor Peoples Campaign Inc)

See also Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Powerful Days In Black and White. Civil rights photography of Charles Moore.

Prayer Pilgrimage for Civil Rights, Washington DC

Prayer Pilgrimage for Civil Rights, 1957 (Library of Congress)
Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom (King Institute ~ Stanford University)
Prayer Pilgrimage for Freedom, Washington, D.C (Civil Rights Digital Library)

~ Q ~

~ R ~

A. Philip Randolph

Randolph, A. Philip (1889-1979) (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Asa Philip Randolph (AFL-CIO)
LBJ Library

Repression against the movement see:
      Alabama vs NAACP
      FBI Against the Movement
      Mississippi Sovereignty Commission
      Orangeburg SC Massacre 1968
      White Citizens Council (now known as "Council of Conservative Citizens)
      Jimmy Lee Jackson Murdered
      Martin Luther King Assasination
      Herbert Lee Murder
      Viola Luizzo Murder
      Lemuel Penn Murder

Gloria Richardson see Cambridge MD Movement & Gloria Richardson

Rock Hill Sit-ins see Charlotte & Rock Hill Sit-ins

Bayard Rustin

Biographical Notes Bayard Rustin (A. Philip Randolph Institute ~ APRI)
Bayard Rustin (Spartacus Educational - UK)
The Organizer, Bayard Rustin (Race Matters Resource Center)
Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin (P.O.V. ~ PBS)
Bayard Rustin Interview (Teachers Domain)
Rustin, Bayard (1910-1987) (King Institute ~ Stanford University)

~ S ~

St. Augustine Movement

St. Augustine FL, Movement, 1963 (CRMVets)
St. Augustine FL, Movement, 1964 (CRMVets)
St. Augustine Movement. (Multiple articles)
St. Augustine Movement (Shirley Bryce ~ ACCORD)

St. Augustine Movement (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
St. Augustine (National Park Service)
Dare Not Walk Alone (Film St. Augustine movement)
St. Augustine Civil Rights 1960 - 1965 (Gil Wilson)

St. Augustine Freedom Trail

Savannah GA Movement

Savannah Sit-ins & Boycott, 1960 (CRMVets)
Savannah GA, Movement, 1963 (CRMVets)
Siege at Savannah, Benjamin Van Clark. Freedomways

Savannah (Freedom on Film)

School Desegregation

CRMVet History Articles
Student Strike at Moton High (1951)
Students and Parents Challenge School Segregation (1951)
NAACP Builds the Case (1951)
Brown v Board of Education (1954)
"Massive Resistance" to Integration (1954)
Clintion, Tennessee — First White School Desegregated (1956)
Autherine Lucy at the Univ. Alabama (1956)
Nashville "Grade-a-Year" School Desegregation Scheme (1957)
The Little Rock Nine (1957)
Youth March for Integrated Schools — Washington, DC (1958)
Prince Edward County, Virginia, Closes It's Public Schools (1959)
New Orleans School Desgregation (1960)
University of Georgia Desegregated (1961)
James Meredith Desegregates 'Ole Miss (1962)
Standing In the Schoolhouse Door (1963)
Massive Evasion of School Integration (1964)
Integrating Americus High School (1964)
Crawfordville, GA, School Bus Struggle (1965)
End of Dual White & "Colored" School Systems (1968)
Brown v. Board of Education 1950-1954

"A School Year Like No Other" ... (Teaching Materials ~ Zinn Education Project)
BvBoE Ruling (U.S. Supreme Court)
Next Steps in the South: Answers to Current Questions (New South, 1956) Brown v Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 1954 (FindLaw)
BvBoE History & Background (African American History!)
Brown v BOE National Historic Site (National Park Service)
Brown Foundation (Brown Foundation)
Separate Is Not Equal (Smithsonian National Museum of American History)
Federal Records ~ BvVoE (National Archives)
Teaching With Documents Lesson Plan: BvBoE (National Archives)
Brown v. Board of Education (Landmark Supreme Court Cases)
... School Desegregation in Nashville (John Egerton ~ Southern Spaces)
Civil Rights - Brown vs. Board of Education (Eisenhower Library)
Supreme Court Ends School Segregation (Finding Dulcinea)

Still Separate, Still Unequal:... (Jonathan Kozol ~ Harper's Magazine)
Looking Back at BvBoE 50th Anniversary (National Public Radio)
A Class of One — Interview With Ruby Bridges (Online News Hour - PBS)
"With an Even Hand" BvBoE at 50 (Library of Congress)
Brown versus Board of Education - Resources (Civil Rights Digital Library)

"All Deliberate Speed" Ruling (AKA "Brown II") (1955)

With Little Deliberate Speed (African American History!)
With All Deliberate Speed - Lesson Plan (Anti-Defamation League)
With All Deliberate Speed (Library of Congress)

Griffin v. County School Board of Prince Edward County (1964)

Griffin v. School Board (Justia.com ~ Supreme Court Center)
Griffin v. County School Board ... (UMKC School of Law)

Green v. County School Board of New Kent County (1968)

Green v. County School Board of New Kent County (Cornell Univ. Law School)
Southern School Desegregation 1966-67 (U.S. Civil Rights Comm.)

School Struggles

A Child Shall Lead Them: Desegregation of Nashville's Schools (John Egerton)

College Desegregation

See Autherine Lucy vs University of Alabama (1956)
See University of Georgia, Desegregation of (1961)
See Meredith Desegregates 'Ole Miss (1962)

The School Integrators

Somebody Had To Do It (Claflin Univ.)

Mickey Schwerner see Chaney, Schwerner, Goodman Lynching

SCOPE Summer Project, 1965 see Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Segregation — the "Jim Crow" System

Birmingham Segregation Laws

Racial Desegregation of Public Accomodations (National Park Service)
Remembering Jim Crow (American Raido Works)
Rise and Fall of Jim Crow (PBS)

Self-defense see:
      Bogalusa LA Movement
      Robert F. Williams, Monroe NC Movement, & Self-Defense

Selma Voting Rights Campaign & March to Montgomery

Selma — Cracking the Wall of Fear, 1963 (CRMVets)
Freedom Day in Selma, 1963 (CRMVets)
The Selma Injunction, 1964 (CRMVets)
Selma & the March to Montgomery (A Discussion ~ CRMVets)
We Will Be There With You (MCHR) (Dr. Alfred Moldovan) [Presentation & Audio]

National Voting Rights Museum and Institute (Selma, Alabama)
Selma to Montgomery March (King Institute at Stanford Univ.)
When You Pray, Move Your Feet (Library of Congress)
African Americans Campaign for Voting Rights in Selma ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Selma-Montgomery March (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Selma 1965: The Historic Alabama Voting Rights Campaign (Chuck Fager)
Selma, Alabama (Silas Norman and John Love, SNCC)
Diane Nash Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text-Video]
Sheyann Webb Interview (Teachers Domain) [Text+Video]
Police Attack Alabama Marchers (BBC)
Bridge To Freedom 1965 (Eyes on the Prize ~ PBS)
Selma March (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Selma (African American History!)
LBJ Library
LBJ's "We Shall Overcome" Speech (History Place)
The Selma-to-Montgomery Story (History Now) [Lesson Plan]
Selma to Montgomery -- A Visual History (Photographs by Spider Martin)
Civil Rights, Voting Rights, & Selma March (Amistad Digital Resource)
Selma-to-Montgomery March Begins (Finding Dulcinea)
National Park Service links:
     Selma-to-Montgomery March
     Selma to Montgomery Voting Rights March [Lesson Plan]
     Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail

Pilgrimage to Selma, 37 years Later (Richard Leonard ~ UUA)
And Justice For All... (Jennifer ~ Odyssey Student Trek)
Selma 1965-2005 (Chuck Fager)
Selma Bridge: Always Under Construction (Allen Tullos ~ Southern Spaces)

See also JFK Library

Fred Shuttlesworth

Fred Shuttlesworth (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Rev. Fred L. Shuttlesworth (Cincinnati Historical Society)
Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth Interview (Teachers Domain)

See also
Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights
Birmingham Movement
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Sit-ins

Sit-Ins of 1960 (CRMVets)
Rock Hill & Charlotte Sit-ins, J. Charles Jones.
Jacksonville Sit-ins & 'Ax-Handle Saturday
Freedom Movement in Washington DC, 1960-61, Triggs & Dietrich.

Sitting for Justice (Smithsonian Museum of American History)
International Civil Rights Center and Museum
Sit-Ins (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Segregated Lunch Counters (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Sit-Ins (African American History!)
You Say You Want a Revolution (Irene ~ Odyssey Student Trek)
Justice (CORE ~ Online Archive California)
Student Protest (Amistad Digital Resource ~ Columbia University)
Virginia Union University Students Campaign ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Montgomery, AL students sit-in ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Jacksonville Students Sit-in ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Durham Students Sit-in ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Students Protest Segregation in Columbia, SC ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Tallahassee, FL, Students Sit-in ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

See also entries for specific states and cities

South Carolina Movement

Students Protest Segregation in Columbia, SC ...(GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

See also Orangeburg SC Movement & Orangeburg Massacre

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) Founded (CRMVets)
Even in the Face of Death, Bayard Rustin. Liberation, February, 1957.
SCLC/SCOPE Project, Maria Gitin
SCLC Documents (CRMVets Document Collection)
SCLC Website Current SCLC organizational website.
SCLC Magazine Current issue

Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Records of the SCLC, 1954-1970 (Truman State Univ.)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (Spartacus Educational - UK)
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (University of Houston)
This is SCLC (1960 pamphlet) (National Humanities Center)

Summer Community Organization and Political Education Project (SCOPE)

Summer Community Organization and Political Education Project (CRMVets Document Collection)

SCOPE Project (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
SCOPE project (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Dynamics of Idealism: Volunteers for Civil Rights (DISC ~ Univ. Wisconsin)
Freedom Now! An Archival Project (Tougaloo College and Brown University)
Dynamics of Idealism: Volunteers for Civil Rights (Univ Wisc)

See also sections covering:

Martin Luther King
Fred Shuttlesworth
Andrew Young
JFK Library

Southern Conference Education Fund (SCEF)

Two Remarkable Women (Jo Freeman)
The South's Rebel Without A Pause (Heather Gray ~ In Motion)
A Life Of Enduring Impact (Sojourners magazine)
Southern Conference for Human Welfare... (Indiana Univ.)
SCEF: A Guide to Its Records (Georgia State Univ.)

Southern Courier

Southern Courier (Sample issues & background ~ CRMVets)
The Southern Courier
Southern Courier Archive (All issues)
Writing the Wrong in Alabama, Stephen Fee (Harvard Crimson)

Southern Student Organizing Committee (SSOC)

Southern Student Organizing Committee (SSOC) Founded (CRMVets)

SSOC: Students in the South (Ed Hamlett ~ Online Archive California)

Sovereignty Commission see Mississippi Sovereignty Commission

Students in the Freedom Movement see Youth and Student Role in Freedom Movement

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) ("snick")

Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) Founded (CRMVets)
The Founding of SNCC. (SNCC 50th Anniversary Conference)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (Multiple articles)
SNCC Documents (CRMVets Document Collection)
SNCC's Legacy, Charles Cobb (SNCC Legacy Project)

Student Voice, SNCC Newsletter
     Student Voice & Internal Newsletters Sample issues (CRMvets)
     Student Voice All issues (Wisconsin Historical Society)

The Movement Friends of SNCC Newspaper 1965-70 (Farmworkers)

SNCC 1960-1966. (Four students at Univ. North Carolina)
History of SNCC (Ella Baker Conference ~ Shaw Univ.)
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
SNCC & MFDP (ROAR International)
SNCC: What We Did (Julian Bond ~ Monthly Review)
SNCC (Spartacus Educational - UK)
SNCC (Center for Oral History ~ Univ. of Southern Mississippi)
A Family Divided (Irene Huangyi Lin - Odyssey U.S. Trek)
SNCC (U.S. Defense Department Intelligence Report)
SNCC in Arkansas (Encyclopedia of Arkansas History & Culture)
SNCC in Georgia (New Georgia Encyclopedia)

SNCC Listserve

Retrospectives:

SNCC 50th Anniversary Conference
     Videos: SNCC 50th Anniversary Conference (38 DVDs).
SNCC Symposium 2010 (Brown Univ.)
SNCC at 50 (Charlie Cobb ~ The Root)
U.S. Civil Rights Veterans Pass Torch to Younger Generation (Lucy Komisar)
Marking SNCC's 50th Anniversary (NPR)
Never Turn Back: SNCC's 50th Anniversary Gathering ... (Carl Davidson)

See also sections covering::

Ella Baker
Black Power
Julian Bond
Freedom Rides
Freedom Summer
Jim Forman
Fannie Lou Hamer
John Lewis
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
Robert (Bob) Moses
Diane Nash
Sit-ins
Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael)
Student Strike at Moton High
Moton High School (National Park Service)
The Road to Brown (documentary film).
Interview Oliver Hill (Virginia Commonwealth Univ.)
Interview John Stokes (Virginia Commonwealth Univ.)
African Americans Campaign for Reopening ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)

New York Times v Sullivan & King Tax Case

State of Alabama v King (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
New York Times Co. v. Sullivan (King Institute ~ Standford Univ.)
New York Times v Sullivan (Cornell Law School)
Analysis NYT v Sullivan "Actual Malice" Rule (Human and Constitutional Rights)
Summary of New York Times v Sullivan (Oyez ~ Chicago-Kent College of Law)
Case that Changed First Amendment History (Freedom Forum)
New York Times v Sullivan Opinion (Boston College)
New York Times v Sullivan (Encyclopedia of Alabama)

Summer Community Organization and Political Education (SCOPE) Project see Southern Christian Leadership Conference

Summer Volunteers

Dynamics of Idealism: Volunteers for Civil Rights Survey & data (Univ. of Wisconsin)

~ T ~

Tallahassee Bus Boycott

The Ride to Equality (Tallahassee Democrat)
Tallahassee Black Community Boycotts Buses ... (GNAD ~ Swarthmore Coll.)
Images of the Civil Rights Movement in Florida (Florida Memory)

Freedom Movement in Tennessee

Civil Rights Movement (Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture)
Civil Rights Movement in Tennessee (Middle Tennessee State University)
Tennessee's Modern Movement for Civil Rights (Tennessee State Museum)
       Lesson plans & teaching aids for grades: 5-12 (Tennessee State Museum)
Civil Rights Movement (Tennessee4Me.org ~ Tennessee State Museum)
Timeline of civil rights in Tennessee (Jackson Sun)
National Civil Rights Museum (Lorraine Motel, Memphis)
"Tent City," Tennessee (Richard L. Saunders ~ Paul Meek Library Museum)
Jim Crow and Disfranchisement of Southern Blacks (Tennessee State Library)
A Child Shall Lead Them: Desegregation of Nashville's Schools (John Egerton)

Emmett Till

Emmett Till murdered! (African-American Registry)
Emmett Till murder (Civil Rights Digital Library)
They Stand Accused James Hicks (Christopher Metress )
Death of Emmett Till (Bob Dylan song)
Emmett Till Murder (EmmitTillMurder.Com)
Lynching of Emmett Till (In Search of Heroes)
Murder of Emmett Till (American Experience - PBS)
Murder of Emmett Till (African American History!)
Till, Emmett Louis (1941-1955) (King Institute ~ Stanford University)

Kwame Ture (Stokely Carmichael)

Kwame Ture (In Memory ~ CRMVets)

Kwame Ture Interview (Stokely Carmichael) (Teachers Domain)
Testimony of Stokely Carmichael (Senate Internal Security Cmte)
Position Paper: The Basis of Black Power (The '60s Project)
Stokely Carmichael, "Black Power," 1966 (Voices of Democracy project ~ Univ. of MD)
1967 Speech & Slideshow (Washington Univ.)
"Black Power" speech, 1968 (American Rhetoric)
Stokely Carmichael (Spartacus Educational ~ UK)

Tuskegee Boycott (Butler Chapel, National Park Service)

~ U ~

University of Alabama, Desegregation of

Standing In the Schoolhouse Door (CRMVets)

University of Alabama Integration (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Malone Hood Plaza (University of Alabama)

See also Autherine Lucy vs University of Alabama

University of Georgia, Desegregation of

University of Georgia Desegregated, 1961 (CRMVets)

Charlayne Hunter-Gault (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Hamilton Holmes (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
University of Georgia Integration (Civil Rights Digital Library)
Athens (Freedom on Film ~ Univ. Georgia)

40th Anniversary Desegregation of UGA (Univ. of Georgia)
Celebrating Courage: 50th Anniversary Desegregation (Univ. Georgia)

Georgia Tech Integration (Civil Rights Digital Library)

University of Mississippi, Desegregation of see Meredith Desegregates 'Ole Miss, 1962

~ V ~

Veteran's websites see Movement Veteran's Websites

Vietnam War & Civil Rights Movement

Articles & Speeches Opposing the Vietnam War by Movement Veterans (CRMVets)
Freedom Movement Documents Related to the Vietnam War (CRMVets)

Vietnam War (SNCC 1960-1966)
Vietnam War (1961-1975) (King Institute ~ Stanford University)
Vietnam War & Civil Rights Movement (Brendan Gallagher ~ UK)

Virginia Movement

Civil Rights Movement in Virginia (Virginia Historical Society)
Civil Rights in U.S. and Virginia History (University of Virginia)
Voices of Freedom (Virginia Commonwealth University)
Civil Rights Movement in Middleburg VA (Eugene Scheel)
Historic Library Desegregation (Long Civil Rights Movt. ~ UNC) Griffin v. School Board (Justia.com ~ Supreme Court Center)
Griffin v. County School Board ... (UMKC School of Law)
Farmville 1963 Civil Rights Protests (Virginia Commonwealth University)
Massive Resistance in a Small Town (Humanities ~ NEH)
Farmville Protests of 1963, (Encyclopdia of Virginia)

See also sections covering:

Danville Movement
The Norfolk 17 (Virginia school integration)

C.T. Vivian

Rev. C.T. Vivian Interview (Teachers Domain)
Vivian, Cordy Tindell (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Vivian, Cordy Tindell (BlackPast.org)
C.T. Vivian Interview (Eyes on the Prize ~ PBS)
C.T. Vivian (National Visionary Leadership Project)

Voices of Civil Rights. (History Channel)

Voting Rights

Voting Rights — Are You "Qualified" to Vote? Literacy Tests. (CRMVets)
Voting Rights History — Two Centuries of Struggle (CRMVets)

Expanding Voting Rights (Teaching Tolerance)
Racial Voting Rights (National Park Service)
Winning the Vote: A History of Voting Rights by Steven Mintz (Lehrman Institute)
History: The Right to Vote, By Tod Olson (Scholastic)
Milestones in Voting History (City University of New York (CUNY)
History of Voting Rights (eLocal Lawyers) [Video]
Asian American History Timeline

See also:
Voting Rights Act
Voting Rights Act Renewal
Civil Rights Acts
Mississippi Movement
Selma Voting Rights Campaign

Voting Rights Act Renewal

Renew the Voting Rights Act (CRMVets)
National Commission on the Voting Rights Act (LCCRUL)
Voting Rights Act: Renew Restore (ACLU)
Reaffirm Commitment to Voting Rights Act (National Council of Churches)
Federal Voting Rights Laws (U.S. Dept. of Justice)
Voting Rights Act at 40 (NAACP Legal Defense and Educational Fund)

~ W ~

Wednesdays in Mississippi

Wednesdays in Mississippi (Univ. Virginia)
Recollections of Polly Spiegel Cowan (Jewish Women's Archive)
Wednesdays in Mississippi (Liza Cowan)
Wednesdays in Mississippi: Uniting Women... (Debbie Harwell~ JSH)

See also National Council of Negro Women & Dorothy Height

We Shall Overcome

Song:
We Shall Overcome (Library of Congress)
Get Up Stand Up (PBS)
The History of 'We Shall Overcome' (NPR)

Speech:
"We Shall Overcome" — Martin Luther King (YouTube Video)

Performances:
We Shall Overcome ~ SNCC Freedom Singers (MP3 Audio)

We Shall Overcome Historic Places National Park Service. (Click on the red location circles.)

White Citizens Council (now known as "Council of Conservative Citizens)

White Citizens Council Formed (CRMVets)

Council of Conservative Citizens (Anti-Defamation League)
White Citizens Council (Univ. Southern Mississippi)
White Citizens' Councils aimed to maintain 'Southern way of life' (Jackson Sun)
White Citizens Councils (WCC) (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
People & Events: Citizens' Councils (American Experience ~ PBS)
Council of Conservative Citizens (Southern Poverty Law Center)

See also Ku Klux Klan (KKK)

Robert F. Williams, Monroe NC Movement, & Self-Defense

Robert Williams & Armed Self-Defense in Monroe NC (CRMVets)
Frame-up, Escape, & Exile of Robert F. Williams (CRMVets)
Swimming Pool Showdown, Robert Williams. Southern Exposure.

Speech by Robert F. Williams in China (MarxMail.org)
Robert F. William (Alternative Tentacles Records)

Women In the Civil Rights Movement

Women of the Freedom Movement (CRMVets)
Women Who Shaped the Civil Rights Movement. (Yale Univ.)
I Can't Deal With Her: Black and White Women in the Movement (Ruby Sales)
Jewish Women in Civil Rights (Jewish Women's Archive)

~ X ~

~ Y ~

Andrew Young

LBJ Library
Andrew Young (New Georgia Encyclopedia)
Andrew Young (Audio Interview) (Tavis Smiley Show)

Youth and Student Role in Freedom Movement

When Youth Protest: The Mississippi Civil Rights Movement (MS Hist. Society)
Student Protest (Amistad Digital Resource ~ Columbia University)
Lesson Plan (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Direct Actions & Desegregation (Atlanta Regrional Council Higher Education)

See also Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)

Youth March for Integrated Schools 1958

Youth March for Integrated Schools (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Address at Youth March (King Institute ~ Stanford Univ.)
Labor & Civil Rights: Two Movements, One Goal? (George Meany Archives)

~ Z ~

 

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