They Say That Freedom Is A Constant Struggle

Woolworth sit-in, Jackson, MS. May 28, 1963

[© Fred Blackwell]

"This was the most violently attacked sit-in during the 1960s and is the most publicized. A huge mob gathered, with open police support while the three of us sat there for three hours. I was attacked with fists, brass knuckles and the broken portions of glass sugar containers, and was burned with cigarettes. I'm covered with blood and we were all covered by salt, sugar, mustard, and various other things.

Seated, left to right, are myself, Joan Trumpauer (now Mulholland), and Anne Moody (Coming of Age in Mississippi).

[© Fred Blackwell]


Other sit-ins — some in a split-off section and some briefly with our heavily targeted part — were Memphis Norman (himself brutally struck and kicked unconscious), Pearlena Lewis, Lois Chaffee, James Beard, George Raymond, and Walter Williams. —  John Salter (Hunter Bear).

(Movement activist Rev. Ed King standing behind sit-ins.)

[UPI photograph]


NAACP leaders Roy Wilkins and Medgar Evers being arrested by Deputy Chief J.L. Ray for attempting to picket outside the Jackson Woolworth store three days after the sit-in.


Danville, VA. 1963

[© Ken Thompson]


"I'm a demonstrating GI, from Fort Bragg. 
And the way they treat my people, 
Lord it makes me mad. 
You know, that I couldn't sit still, 
Because my home is in Danville." 

In 1963, when a soldier on leave participates in the Danville protests while wearing his uniform, Secretary of Defense McNamara (architect of the Vietnam War) says: "You can go overseas and fight in a uniform, but you can't come back over here picketing and demonstrating in your uniform. That's un-American."  —  Sing for Freedom


[Photographer Unknown]
Protesters singing on City Hall steps.
[Photographer Unknown]


An injured demonstrator at a make-shift, first-aid station in a local church after police attack with clubs and firehoses.


Sitting-In, Boycotting, and Picketing for Freedom
Farmville Virginia (Prince Edward County), 1963
Photos courtesy of Vigrinia Commonwealth Univ. Library)

[© Richmond Times-Dispatch]


Students demand re-opening of their schools which have been closed for years to prevent court-ordered integration. Closing the schools denied education to Blacks, but white children were given vouchers to attend segregated "private academies" taught by white public-school teachers.

[Virginia Commonwealth Univ. Library photo]


Rev. Goodwin Douglas leads pickets outside county courthouse.

[Virginia Commonwealth Univ. Library photo]


Enforcing the boycott.

[Virginia Commonwealth Univ. Library photo]
[Virginia Commonwealth Univ. Library photo]
[Virginia Commonwealth Univ. Library photo]
[© Richmond Times-Dispatch]


Sit-ins being dragged away from the segregated College Shoppe Restaurant.
[Virginia Commonwealth Univ. Library photo]
Protesting segregation in the streets of Farmville. [Queens College collection photo]


Freedom Day in Selma, October 1963

[© Alex Brown]

Bernard LaFayette, SNCC & SCLC. Photo taken June 1963, Selma Alabama, after a brutal Klan beating that almost killed him. That same night they gunned down Medgar Evers in his driveway in a multi-state KKK conspiracy to murder Movement leaders in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana.

[© John Kouns]


"Freedom Day" in Selma, October, 1963. Blacks line up at the courthouse to apply to register to vote.

[© John Kouns]


SNCC Field Secretaries Avery Williams and Chico Neblett arrested for trying to bring water to voter applicants waiting for hours in line at the courthouse.

[© John Kouns]


SNCC members arrested for holding up signs urging voter registration.

[© Matt Herron]


Orangeburg, SC. 1963

[© Cecil J. Williams]


Mass meeting, Orangeburg, SC. 1963.

[© Cecil J. Williams]


Prayer protest, Orangeburg, SC. 1963.

[© Cecil J. Williams]


Orangeburg, SC. Fall, 1963. So many students from Claflin College and South Carolina State are in jail for protesting that classrooms are almost empty.

[© Cecil J. Williams]


Boycott picketers, Orangeburg, SC. 1963.


Americus, Georgia

[Photographer unknown]

[Photographer unknown]

[Photographer unknown]

[Photographer unknown]


In the Streets of DC

[© Warren Leffler]


Attorney General Robert Kennedy addresses CORE activists protesting outside the Department of Justice. June, 1963


Jail Can't Stop Us Now

[SNCC Photo]

We have served our time in jail
With no money for to go our bail
But we'll never turn back
No, we'll never turn back

[photographer unknown]



Morgan State students in jail after protests at Baltimore's segregated Northwood theater, 1963.


Gadsden, AL, 1963

Young protesters surrounded by white mob.
[© Birmingham News]


Tuscaloosa, AL, 1964

[© Birmingham News]


Rev. Richard Boone, SCLC field staff. Off to jail!
[© Birmingham News]

Under arrest for the crime of defying segregation in Tuscaloosa.



Keep on Keeping On...

[Institute of Social Medicine and Community Health]


Medical Committee for Civil Rights doctors picketing the AMA convention in Atlantic City to protest segregated health facilities, 1963.


[Photographer unknown]
Under arrest! Location and date unknown (probably 1963).


[Photographer unknown]


Chapelhill NC, winter 1964. One of hundreds of anti-segregation
protesters doused with freezing water in 15° weather.


[AP photo]


More than 50 CORE protesters are arrested in 1964 for protesting at a Tulsa OK restaurant. They "go limp" forcing police to carry them to the paddy wagon and then from the paddy wagon into the jail.


Cambridge, Maryland: 1963 and 1964

[AP Photo]


Nonviolent protesters in Cambridge are assaulted by the owner of a segregated cafe, July 1963. The demonstrators are then arrested.


[AP photo]


Cambridge Nonviolent Action Committee leader Gloria Richardson stands between Maryland National Guardsmen and protesters, July 1963.

[AP photo]
Marching in Cambridge, 1964.


[© Frank Dandridge]


The Maryland National Guard permits a segregated white-only rally for George Wallace, but blocks nonviolent Blacks from protesting, 1964.


[AP photo]


[© Frank Dandridge]


[© Danny Lyon]


Gloria Richardson, Stokely Carmichael, and Cleve Sellers taken into custody, 1964.


Shout for Freedom!

[© Bob Fitch Photo]



[© Library of Congress]


[Photograher unknown]


Martin Luther King and Malcolm X meet during Senate debate on Civil Rights bill, 1964.



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(Labor donated)