From: Marsha Joyner
Since history is written by the "winners" and they are usually male, very little is written about All of the women and the important part they have played in our struggle. Everyone knows about Ella Baker and Fannie Lou Hamer, Rosa Parks, etc.
It was the Black women who made the most sacrifices in the bus boycott. The women who worked in the basements of the churches to move this movement along; the women who walked picket lines in the rain, mud and snow; the women who rode the freedom rides; the women who did logistics for every event; the women who did voter registration, worked in the summer of '64; women who were secretaries, receptionists who had to deal with the foul mouth whites on the phone, who did the dirty work that was not recalled, the women who are written out of the history books.
Throughout our history there have been women, the backbone of our race. I would like as many of their names as possible. It is to the workers in the vineyard who give so much and get so little that I dedicate this.
Thank you very much.
From: A. Ruth Beard
I wish to add another inspiring woman of the Civil Rights movement, Mrs. Alice Beard, a Tougaloo College graduate and leader in the voter registration drives who taught poor illiterate black people how to read and write so that they could pass the literacy test for registering to vote.
Mrs. Beard later married Mr. John N. Franklin, a man who passed for white and was one of the persons who would "sit in" at the segregated lunch counters at Kress and other novelty stores in attempts to intergrate the lunch counters at those business establishments.
Mrs. Beard was so visible and vocal during the 1960's civil rights movement, when she got a full time teaching job in the Canton Public School district, she was later fired after the school board found out about her civil rights history, she later sued the school district being represented by Mr. Edward Blackmon, attorney and governmental official in the state of Mississippi and won the law suit in the courts.
Mrs. Beard was a classmate of such notables( to name a few) as:
She attended the University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg and Jackson State University graduate schools.
She hosted in her home the 3 civil rights workers, Goodman, Schwerner and Chaney before they were murdered; Dr. Martin Luther King; Ralph Abernathy; Charles Ever, brother of Medger Evers after Medger's death when Charles moved to Mississippi from up north. She was a member of the Tougaloo Community Women's club.
I am A. Ruth Beard, her daughter, who also attended Tougaloo College in 1969 and was the co-editor of the Harambee Newspaper on Tougaloo's campus. I was the first person that Stokely Carmichael mentioned "Black power" to when he attended the Freedom School at Tougaloo.
From: Thomas Armstrong
Megar Evers would have called the women listed below: "The Little People Against The System". I know that there were many others but we can never forget the role that the following women played that contributed to the success of the Jackson MS Movement.
Dorie Ladner, Joan Trumpauer, Joyce Ladner, Jan Hillegas, Betty Poole, Deloris Dunlap, Julie Zaugg, A.M. E. Logan, Mary Harrison, Elnora Price, Evelyn Pierce, Geraldine Edwards, Ethel Sawyer, Helen O'neal, Janice Jackson, Jeanette King, Ann Moody and Constance Slaughter. We must never forget their efforts.
From: Gloria Xifaras Clark
Women? Of course, there are thousands of us. That is what makes a movement. Most of us shall remain nameless. "By their fruits ye shall know them."
Women in the movement did everything, like we do in real life to this day. Some cooked, some organized the MFDP, some cleaned, some went to jail, some marched, some were beaten, some died, some celebrated, some cried, some laughed, some danced, some sang, some prayed, some drove, some walked, some made love, some didn't, some voted, some didn't, some brought up children, some were children, some were strong, some were frail, some talked, some were silent, some were workers, some were not, some led, some followed, some taught, we all learned, we all stood up to injustice.
Gloria, one of the thousands
From: Shannon Frystak
If any of you were fortunate enough to spend any time in Louisiana, there was a large network of community women as well as students who housed, fed, and supported and sustained the movement there. The Castles come to mind and many others. Some were housed and fed by Mama Jo in the St. Francisville area of the state. My own work on women in the movement in that state will hopefully be published soon and will shed light on the incredible impact women made on the movement in rural communities!
Shannon Frystak - Visiting Scholar
Center for Research on Women
Caroline Richardson Hall-Tulane University
New Orleans, Louisiana 70118
From: Ken Lawrence
Did anyone mention Virginia Collins, Walter's mother? I'm sure I know only a small part of her distinguished biography, which includes involvement with Queen Mother Audley Moore's Association of Ethiopian Women, staff of the New Orleans SCEF office with Jim Dombrowski, and provider of refuge in her home for dozens of us when we needed time to rest and reflect. When Walter went to prison for draft refusal in 1971, she went on national tour to publicize Black war resisters. As vice president of the Republic of New Africa she was Dara Abubakari.
Ken Lawrence, Bellefonte, Pennsylvania
From: Maggie Nolan Donovan
I too want to add the work of Northern women to the list. I worked in the Boston SNCC office. Before my time Dorothy Burlege had started that office. During my time there, 63 - 67, I worked with:
We worked the phones among many other things: fundraising, getting supplies, organizing speaking dates, frantically (and uselessly) calling the justice department because folks were in peril somewhere, networking among people in the field, Atlanta and other Northern offices, connecting with local activists, arranging housing and meals, getting out votes, organizing campaigns to influence congresspeople, doing publicity, recruiting and couseling students, etc,.etc. etc.
We went on demonstrations, spoke wherever they'd have us, hooked Southern organizers like Mrs. Hamer up with Northern sympathisers, scrounged all sorts of stuff, packed, shipped and sometimes drove clothes to Alabama and Mississippi.
We worked with all sorts of women volunteers who were organizers themselves, very savvy and committed. Standouts among them were:
Rose Fishman, a life long activist and close collaborator of Mrs. Hamer, really should be written about. She was the Queen of Fundraising. Before her death a few years ago she and I raised money for a conference in Boston about SNCC. We held a fundraiser at her house and she got out this battered old tin box, which she called the SNCC box, and which we had stuffed contributions in more than 30 years before. We filled it up again.
Maggie Nolan Donovan
From: Heather Baum
Hello Maggie and Marsha: Thanks for what you are doing Marsha.
This website has a Veterans Roll Call page that contains a fairly large and growing self-identifying listing with short bios on many of us. The stories of foot soldiers listed there are pretty interesting and there are a lot of women. I am included there as well.
I also want to mention the names of a few Northern organizers, some of whom came to Minnesota from the south after being arrested and jailed, to attend school. These women are black, white and Native American. They have worked quietly with passion for decades with little recognition. They include:
Together we rode busses, we went to jail, sang, prayed, put together newsletters, organized rallies, demonstrations, legal clinics, pot lucks, music events, and back porch health clinics. We cared for children, raised money for bail and had great office rent parties. We laughed, we cried, and we bled. Today, these sisters are all Mothers and Grand Mothers...and their stories deserve to be told. Thank you for what you are doing.
From: Claire O'Connor
I hope someone is compiling all this information on women in the Civil Rights Movement.
I would like to add Mrs. Mona Miles of Batesville MS who welcomed us into her house, fed and cleaned up after all of us. She and Mr. Miles gave up their bedroom to two of us. Her home became the refuge and 'way- station' for those traveling through as well as those of us who were more long term.
There were many in Batesville but I remember her especially because she did all this with generosity and love despite here severe chronic health problems and what I now understand to be an anxiety condition.
From: Patrick Jones
While I realize this is site is focused on the south, I would respectfully suggest that we also remember and honor the many women who struggled for racial justice in the North and West, and who may have contributed to the Movement in other ways.
For example, in my work on civil rights insurgency in Milwaukee, I believe Vel Phillips is deserving of such an honor. Ms. Phillips was one of a generation of middle-class African Americans that broke numerous racial barriers during the post-war era. Born in 1924, Ms. Phillips was the first in her family to go off to college when she earned a scholarship to attend Howard University. While there, she learned from E. Franklin Frazier, Alaine Locke, Howard Thurman and other African American intellectual luminaries. In 1951, Ms. Phillips became the first African American woman to earn a law degree from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Active in the Milwaukee NAACP and the League of Women Voters for many years, Ms. Phillips was the first African American and the first woman elected to the Milwaukee Common Council in 1956, where she spoke as the sole voice for people of color and women in the city for over a decade. In 1958, as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention, Ms. Phillips became the first black woman in the United States to work in the policy-making body of either major political party. Ms. Phillips made voter registration and housing her primary issue on the Common Council, promoting public housing initiatives, as well as fair housing legislation. She waged a lone, embattled struggle for a city-wide fair housing ordinance from 1960-1967 (each time being voted down 18-1!).
In 1967, Fr. James Groppi and the local NAACP Youth Council and Commandos joined her fight, adding a dynamic and militant direct action dimension to her struggle. Over 200 consecutive nights of marching and protest, Milwaukee activists faced violence equal to or surpassing the more well known stories of the South. In fact, some journalists called Milwaukee "The Selma of the North" during this period. Ms. Phillips worked primarily in formal politics, but also supported (and occasionally engaged in) non-violent direct action.
She went on to be the first black female judge in Wisconsin and the first person of color elected to statewide office (as WI Secretary of State in 1978). During the WI sesquicentennial celebration in the late- 1990s, the WI State Historical Socety selected Vel Phillips as one of the 5 most important political figures in WI history, alongside Fightin' Bob LaFollette, Joseph McCarthy (yuck!), and others. Like Sojourner Truth and Ella Baker, Ms. Phillips refused to separate the struggle for racial justice from the struggle for gender equality and her efforts in these areas were an inspiration to many who followed in her wake. Vel Phillips's impact on Milwaukee, on Wisconsin and on the nation is significant and, I think, deserving of honor.
Thanks for reading,
From: John Gibson
Carrie Dilworth, Gould, Arkansas; local officer in the way-ahead-of-its-time racial egalitarian Southern Tenant Farmers' Union in the 1930s; 30 years later a civil rights movement pioneer working with SNCC
Ruthie Buffington Hansen Pine Bluff, Arkansas; participated in first sit-in at Pine Bluff for which she was expelled from Arkansas AM&N; went to work full-time for SNCC
Joanna Edwards Pine Bluff, Arkansas; participated in first sit-in at Pine Bluff for which she was expelled from Arkansas AM &N; went to work full-time for SNCC and many others
From: Alisa Harrison
I have an article forthcoming on women in the southwest Georgia movement. These are some of the lesser known women who, as I did my research, continually amazed me with their capacity for giving and their commitment to each other and their larger community. Some of them will be familiar to people, but nonetheless all tend to be left out of published work on the movement:
There are so many others, and, of course, there are countless more whose names no one ever recorded in the first place or can remember now, all these years later. These are just the names that come up over and over again in both manuscript sources and oral histories. The story of women's activism is rich, rich history.
Alisa Y. Harrison
Ph.D. Candidate, Department of History
Durham, North Carolina
From: Penny Patch
Thank you Alisa Harrison for your list of SW Georgia women. I think perhaps where you list Margaret King you mean Marion King.
Here are more Southwest Georgia women without whom the Movement would not have been what it was:
I would add from Panola County, Mississippi:
There were many more.
From: Alisa Harrison
To: Penny Patch
Thanks to Penny Patch for including Marion King and others in the list of women from SW GA. But I actually did mean Margaret King, mother of C.B., Slater, and the rest of the King siblings (and, of course, mother-in-law to Marion and Carol King.)
It's my understanding that Margaret King (and her husband) were crucial to Charles Sherrod and Cordell Reagon's early efforts to establish SNCC's project in Albany, and that they continued as one of a number of adult couples willing to help SNCC workers throughout their time in the region. And before SNCC's era in Albany she was also responsible for running day nurseries for impoverished African American children and participating in other groups oriented toward community improvement.
I don't think anyone here would imply such a reading, but outside of this list, a lot of people wouldn't recognize these kinds of activities community organization that isn't explicity 'political', helping parents in need of childcare, etc. as central to "the movement." But that's one of the things I find so fascinating about studying women's activism: it expands our notions of what "the movement" was, where it happened, and what it did. In any case, I owe the better part of what I've learned about women's activism in the movement to the generosity of folks on this list and in local communities, and their willingness to share memories and insights.
With continued appreciation, Alisa
From: Charlie Thomas
Please add the names of Minnie Lewis and Guerry Durham Hodderson to those who contributed to the movement. Guerry and I were assigned by COFO to a project in Carthage, MS and we met many women there whose names should be on your honor roll. I have not kept in touch and cannot remember most of the names now.
Minne took her six year old daughter to become the first black child to enroll in Leake County's white schools. I want to echo Constance Curry's remark that there were many, many women throughout the south who gave extraordinary efforts to the movement. The only way to even get close to a real list would be to contact people in each county who could give you names.
While we rightly recognize the crucial organizing role of SNCC (and others), the victories of the civil rights movement were those of huge numbers of ordinary people doing extraordinary things.
From: Bruce Hartford
If you're looking for unsung heroines, I'd like to call out the names of Septima Clarke, Dorothy Cotton, and Annell Ponder, the three women who were most responsible for organizing and running the Citizenship Schools program. First for Highlander and then for SCLC.
Those schools taught more than 50,000 people how to register to vote and become organizers and community activists. Fannie Lou Hamer took that training, and she and Annell were on their way back from one of the meetings when they were so horribly brutalized by the cops in Winona.
It was their spadework with the Citizenship Schools that planted the seeds from which so many local Movement leaders and activists in Alabama, Georgia, Mississippi and elsewhere sprang. And I remember so well Dorothy and Annell organizing and leading meetings and marches during Selma.
There isn't a lot of info available about them, but below are a few sources:
And who can forget Sheyann Webb (8) and Rachel West (9), Selma's "littlest freedom fighters." Or Rachel's mother Alice and her father Alonzo and her sisters and brothers Nella (17), Juliette (13), Alice (14), Carl (12), Rachel (9), Roderick (8), Mark (6), and Bonnie (4). They were a mass meeting and freedom chorus all by themselves, and their George Washington Carver Projects appartment next to Browns Chapel was haven, home, and refuge for half the civil rights workers in Alabama.
From: Victoria Adams
Please add to your list:
(All Deceased); Peggy Jean Connor, Raylawnie Branch, Mattie Bivins Dennis, and others whose names escape my 77 year old memory now.
Also yours truly, Victoria Gray(Adams).
I dare say w/o the support and participation of these women, the Hattiesburg, Canton and Jackson communities would not have become the significant players in the Mississippi Movement History as they did. These women were truly signposts of the highest order.
Peace and Love,
Victoria Gray Adams
From: Steve Cranford
Diane Nash. My hero in SNCC. Although later in life she admitted to being afraid, I thought she was fearless and certainly inspired courage in others.
From: Faith Holsaert
In considering women in the SW GA movement, students at Albany State were crucial from the beginning.
Bertha Gober, also expelled from Albany State was a SNCC Freedom Singer and wrote the words to the SNCC anthem, We've been 'buked and we've been scorned. Bertha was arrested with a male Albany State student, trying to use the "white" restroom after returning from a school holiday in late autumn 1962 and their arrest was a flash point for the Albany. Movement, which had been building for some time.
Janie Culbreth Rambeau was one of the expelled students after the demonstrations. Janie remained in Albany, became a certified teacher and later a Baptist minister. She heads a small, justice-conscious congregation there.
And of course, Bernice Johnson Reagan was an Albany State student who marched. was arrested, became a Freedom Singer, founder of Sweet Honey in the Rock, MacArther Genius Grant Recipient.
On Christmas Eve 1961, Peg Dammond, Angeline Butler, and I from NYC, joined Reggie Robinson, Bill Hanson, Diane Ostrofsky, and others from Baltimore CAG to sit-in in the hometown of Maryland's Gov Tawes ("No room at the Inn") Chrisfield on the Eastern Shore of the Chesapeake Bay. We were arrested and spent a week or so in jail. Within a few months, the Cambridge movement was in full voice. This movement sprang from a local tradition of activism and resistance and was subsequently helped and fostered by SNCC'S involvement. Reggie and Bill were assigned to Cambridge as field secretaries with the great and underappreciated local leader Gloria Richardson. SNCC people involved at a later time included Stokely Carmichael, Rap Brown, Judy Richardson, John Wilson. Cambridge, after 18 months of occupation by federal troops, became a watch word for resistance.
From: Judy Richardson
Hi, Marsha -
I only wish it were true that folks knew the names of Ms. Hamer and Ms. Baker. I've been speaking on campuses for the past 12 years. I just got back this week-end from speaking at Exeter (N.H), Mt. Union (a small campus in Ohio), and Pepperdine (LA). I find that folks don't know the names of any female activists from the Movement except Rosa Parks. Some may know Ms. Hamer, if I'm lucky, but they definitely don't know Ms. Baker (and I've always done a whole piece on her).
BTW when you speak again you could also mention Diane Nash, Annell Ponder, Septima Clark, Bernice Reagon and a bunch of other women mentioned in some of the SNCC and SCLC books (e.g. Joyce & Dorie Ladner, GLoria Richardson, Mrs. Gray (Adams) and Mrs. Devine and too many others to mention here).
From: Marsha Joyner
Florynce Kennedy 1916-2000
"When you want to get to the suites, start in the streets."
A lawyer and political activist, whose flamboyant attire and sometimes- outrageous comments drew attention to her fierce struggle for civil rights and feminism.
Long before many of use knew about a "movement" Flo, as she was commonly known, was an activist. Recognizable everywhere in cowboy hat and pink sunglasses. When she was denied admission to Columbia Law School, because she was "a woman". Flo promptly sued the law school "saying that they had denied her admission because she was Black." She was admitted. Becoming the first African American woman to graduate from Columbia Law School.
Flo was flamboyant, outspoken and deeply committed to several liberal causes. She fought tirelessly in court and on the streets for civil, human and women's rights. Flo was one of the founding members of the National Women's Political Caucus and the national Feminist Party.
(see Florynce Kennedy for continuation.)
From: Dr. Gwen Patton
Aurelia Browder (1919-1971)
They Stood up for Justice
by Dr. Gwen Patton
Hutchinson Missionary Baptist Church began its celebration of Black History Month by serving as the venue to remember one of its most faithful members, Mrs. Aurelia Browder (1919-1971). Mrs. Browder was one of the most respected persons in the Montgomery community.
She was not only a pioneer civil/voting rights activist; she was a central figure in the Montgomery Bus Boycott Movement. Mrs. Browder, along with Claudette Colvin who was 16 years old at the time, Mrs. Susie McDonald, and Mary Louise Smith (Ware) who was 18 years old at the time, filed the lawsuit against the seating patterns on city buses. All 4 ladies, and many others, had been mistreated and assaulted by bus drivers and policemen prior to December 5, 1955.
Butler Browder, son to Mrs. Browder, was determined that his mother and the other ladies be recognized for courage and that history record their brave acts of standing up for justice. It was this lawsuit that caused the Supreme Court to rule on 12/21/1956 that racist seating on public transportation was unconstitutional. The Court ordered immediate desegregation on the buses, thus, ending the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
The Montgomery Improvement Association Foundation President Tommie Miller presented a plaque to Mrs. Mary Louise Smith-Ware for her truly quiet courage and dignity.
An historic marker to honor Mrs. Aurelia Browder will be unveiled in front of the Browder Family Home on May 11, 2004, the day they testified before Federal Judges Frank Johnson, Richard Rives and Seybourne Lynn about the indignities, manhandling and arrests they suffered by the hands of Montgomery authorities and bus drivers.
One of the best ways we can celebrate the 50th anniversary of the Bus Boycott is by honoring my mother and these of tremendous valor, Butler Browder concluded.
From: Sheila Michaels
1964: Mary Hamilton wins Supreme Court ruling that persons of color are to be addressed in court by the honorifics Miss, Mrs., Mr. & by their professional titles, such as Dr. or Attorney: not solely by their first names. Hamilton CORE's first female Field Secretary in the South had already served a month in jail, for contempt of court in Gadsden Alabama, 1963, after declaring she would answer only to "Miss Hamilton".
From: Sheila Michaels
And you can include the Thompson sisters: Alice, Shirley & Jean. They were members of New Orleans CORE, one of the most remarkable civil rights groups in the country, & one of the most familial. Everybody who joined seemed to be accompanied by a sibling. New Orleans CORE was rich in sister acts: there were the Smith girls (Patricia, Carlene & sometimes Laurie) and the Castles Aretha & Doris among others.
When Louisiana State University went out on strike, Alice, Shirley & Jean Thompson were named as leaders by the Times Picayune. Not only were they barred from school, but their father lost his job when their names, addresses & parents' names appeared. It was one of the ways the newspapers intimidated protesters, then.
Mr. Thompson was a forklift operator & he was blackballed all over the New Orleans waterfront. The docks were about the only place in town where a Black man could find a decent job. Because he was out of work, they were in danger of losing their house, in which their parents had invested for years. They also had younger & older siblings who needed support to stay in school: so there was no choice but to quit & go to work. Their father was roaming the country, looking for work, & got as far as Denver before he found something: which was not really enough to support the family back home.
Nonetheless the sisters ran the picket at Woolworth's their two days off every week & went to Montgomery to convince the CORE officers to continue the Freedom Ride. Jean was on the first bus into Jackson, with Doris Castle & Jim Farmer. I was told that Alice tried to throw herself across Jerome Smith when he was being kicked almost to death in McComb. But one of the men breaking Jerome's jaw picked Alice up with one hand & flung her across the room. (The Thompsons were tiny little things.) They were on every one of the rides out of New Orleans which tested compliance. Those nearly unpublicised rides never went to Jackson & were far more dangerous than the rides which ended at Parchman (which Steven McNichols can attest.)
From: Robin Washington
Irene Morgan Kirkaldy
If Rosa Parks is the mother of the Civil Rights Movement, Irene Morgan is its grandmother. Actually, she is younger than Parks but preceded her in the fight against Jim Crow.
Eleven years before Parks refused to give up her seat on a city bus in Montgomery, Alabama, the young Irene Morgan rejected that same demand on an interstate bus headed to Maryland from Gloucester, Virginia. Recovering from surgery and already sitting far in the back, she defied the driver's order to surrender her seat to a white couple. Like Parks, Morgan was arrested and jailed. But her action caught the attention of lawyers from the NAACP, led by Thurgood Marshall, and in two years her case reached the Supreme Court.
Though the lawyers fervently believed that Jim Crow the curious pseudonym for racial segregation was unjust, they recognized the practice was still the law of the land, upheld by the 1896 Supreme Court decision in Plessy v. Ferguson. Instead of seeking a judgment on humanitarian grounds or the equal protection provisions of the Fourteenth Amendment, they made the seemingly arcane argument that segregation in interstate travel violated the Constitution's Interstate Commerce Clause.
On June 3, 1946, that strategy paid off. In Irene Morgan v. Virginia, the court ruled that segregation in interstate travel was indeed unconstitutional as "an undue burden on commerce." Though that the decision was now law, the southern states refused to enforce it, and Jim Crow continued as the way of life in the South. Yet Morgan's actions, which led directly to the first Freedom Ride, in 1947, provided he blueprint for direct action and court victories to come.
From: Les Lester
Thelma Glover, of Batesville, Mississippi, deserves to be listed with these female freedom fighters. Some of the newspaper articles that mentioned her, during the Civil Rights Movement, can be found on the Mississippi Sovereignty Commission site.
The Sovereignty Commission Web page is a result of a Freedom of Information Act initiative which forced the release of state- government surveillance files which kept records of Civil Rights workers, during the period.
From: Ed Trever
Elizabeth Eckford, Gloria Richardson, Charlene Hunter
One of the most striking scenes on documentaries is Elizabeth Eckford walking to Central High School in Little Rock and having to face the openly hostile crowd there. Her courage and composure was inspirational.
Growing up on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, I have to mention Gloria Richardson, who was a remarkable force of change as the small town of Cambridge became an isolated battlefield which engaged such figures as President Kennedy and his Attorney General brother, George Wallace, Adam Clayton Powell, and others. Numerous Atlantic region college students participated in events as well. The local movement also had local young women, such as Enez Grubb and Dinez White (and many others), play important roles.
Living in Atlanta now, I can't forget Charlene Hunter and her role in desegregating the Univeristy of Georgia.
The Girls of the Leesburg Stockade
In the sweltering heat of July 1963, more than 30 young girls arrested for protesting in Americus GA were imprisoned without trial in the Leesburg Stockade (see Americus GA Movement" and photos). Held in appalling conditions of abuse and privation for weeks, they do not break. Said one of the girls years later: "We always knew that marching could mean jail or death. But I was not afraid, and neither were the others. We were willing to do what we had to do to gain our freedom."
Those whose names are known are listed below:
1. Carol Barrier
2. Lorena Barnum
3. Pearl Brown
4. Bobble Jean Butts
5. Agnes Carter
6. Pattie Jean Collier
7. Mattie Crittenden
8. Barbara Jean Daniels
9. Gloria Dean
10. Carolyn DeLoatch
11. Diane Dorsey
12. Juanita Freeman
13. Robertiena Freeman
14. Henrietta Fuller
15. Shirley Ann Green
16. Verna Hollis
17. Evette Hose
18. Mary Frances Jackson
19. Vyrtis Jackson
20. Dorothy Jones
21. Emma Jean Jones
22. Emmarene Kaigler
23. BarbaraAnn Peterson
24. Annie Lue Ragans
25. Judith Reid
26. Laura Ruff
27. Sandra Russell
28. Willie Mae Smith
29. Billie Jo Thornton
30. Gloria Breedlove Westbrooks
31. LuLu Westbrooks
32. Ozellar Whitehead
33. Carrie Mae Williams
This is Gwendolyn Duncan, President of 40th ACCORD, Inc., St. Augustine. Here is a list of women we can't forget about that were invovled in the Civil Rights Movement of St. Augustine, Florida.
Barbara B. Allen
Velma Robinson Allen
Willie Mae Anderson
Frances C. Band
Willie Mae Bell
Renee Plummer Beltraine
Edna Mae Bias
Janet (White) Boles
Sarah Patton Boyle
Fredericka Thompson Bradley
Blauneva Plummer Brewton
Mrs. John Burgess
Mrs. Hester Campbell
Mrs. Winifred Canright
Carolyn Bates Carlswell
Diane T. Chase
Joe Ann Christian
Yvonne H. Clark
Joe Ann Clay
Hattie Mae Connor
Mattie Mae Connor
Willie Mae Connor
Annie Lee Cooper
Mrs. Dorothy Cotton
Endolyn (Hall) Davis
Pauline E. Davis
Cherry (McDougle) Eubanks
Mamie Nell Ford
Ruby Jean Frazier
Mrs. Rosalie Gordon-Mills
Audrey Nell Hamilton
Annie Mae Mitchell Hancock
Sylvia Jean Henley
Mrs. Ethridge Hughes
Mamie Sapp Irvin
Maude (Burroughs) Jackson
Ora Bell Jackson
Barbara Jean James
Barbara E. Jenkins
Mrs. Earl Johnson, Sr.
Ernestine (Powell) Jones
Mattie Roy Jones
Johnnie Mae McBride
Dora E. McDonald
Lula Mae McGriff
Katherine Ann Miller
Joe Ann Mitchell
Annie Mae Mosley
Lottie Ann Moss
Alma T. Murphy
Essie (Victory) Johnson
Mary Elizabeth Nasby
Lula Mae Palmer
Johnnie Mae Pasco
Mrs. Mary Peabody
Debra Slater Perkins
Cora Lee Phelps
Georgie Mae Reed
Mrs. Maude Reddick
Lillian Twine Roberson
Mrs. Jackie Robinson
Annie Mae (Fason) Simmons
Mrs. Eric Simpson
Pury Lee (Arline) Stevens
Cecelia Thomas Windsor
Audrey L. Thomas
Katherine "Kat" Twine
Joe Ann Anderson-Ulmer
Janice (White) VanDyke
Betty Jean White
Joe Ann White
Retha Bell White
Joanne (James) Whitty
Audrey (Cullar) Willis
Cecelia Thomas Windsor
Affie Mae Wright
*Rena Ayers is 101 years old and still keeps house, cooks, shops, etc.
More Names Never to be Forgotten :
Colia Lidell Lafayette Clark
Bettie Mae Fikes
Charlayne Hunter (Gault)
Coretta Scott King
Mamie Till Mobley
Louise Thompson Patterson
Jo Ann Robinson
Rita Schwerner (Bender)
Ruby Doris Smith
Georgia Mae Turner Hard Times
Lula Jo Williams
(Note that copyrights to the tributes above belong to the individual authors)